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1976年黄河改道以来三角洲近岸区变化遥感监测 预览 被引量:27

MONITORING CHANGES OF NEARSHORE ZONES IN THE HUANGHE(YELLOW RIVER) DELTA SINCE 1976
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摘要 通过对黄河三角洲沿岸10个河口、潮汐汊道的23景陆地卫星影像高潮线的解译与对比,探讨自1976年黄河改道以来,三角洲岸线的变化特征;同时,利用GIS软件处理1976年和1992年滨海区水深测量数据,并与黄河利津站同期入海沙量进行对照分析.结果表明:1)目前黄河三角洲总体处于侵蚀破坏阶段,侵蚀岸线长相当于淤积岸线的2倍;2)人类活动对三角洲岸线变化的影响不断增强,人工海岸长度大幅度增加,总岸线长度缩短,岸线趋于平直;3)52.6%的黄河入海泥沙堆积于入海口附近,其中92%的泥沙堆积在15m水深线以内,向外迅速减少,20m水深线以外出现侵蚀;4)87%黄河入海泥沙往东、东南方向扩散与沉积,往南、东北方向扩散与沉积的泥沙很少,河口的北、西北方向整体上处于侵蚀状态.海岸侵蚀与河口泥沙的输移密切相关. The Huanghe (Yellow River) is well known for its high sediment concentration and low water discharge. The deposition of a large amount of fluvial sediment in the nearshore shallow water zone has resulted in the rapid advance of the Huanghe (Yellow River) delta. Due to reduction of river fluxes resulted from human activities in its upper and middle drainage areas, the evolution of the delta has showed particular characteristics since the artificial migration of the Huanghe (Yellow River) course in 1976. Remote sensing is an effective method to obtain data on changes in subaerial delta. Multi-temporal satellite images can be deployed to study coastline change in the Huanghe (Yellow River) delta. In order to determine changes since the last river course shift in 1976, 23 cloud-free Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images, including 1976-1996, 1998 and 2001 were used in this study. All images were registered to a 1∶50000 topographical map with 30 Ground Control Points (GCPs) per image and transformed to Gaussian orthogonal coordinates. During the geometric correction, MSS images were resampled to 60m×60m while TM images were resampled to 30m×30m, using the nearest neighbor method with a root mean square (rms) error less than 0.9 pixel for MSS or 0.5 pixels for TM. Based on coastline interpretation maps of the 10 estuaries and inlets around the Huanghe (Yellow River) delta, coastline changes in the delta during the period 1976-1998 were analyzed according to different coastline types. Results show that accretion only appeared in the Qingshuigou Estuary with a mean annual change rate of 0.98km/a. Coastline erosion was taking place in the Guoquzibei, Chaohe, Diaokou and Zimaigou estuaries at a rate of -0.51km/a, -0.29km/a, -0.26km/a and -0.24km/a respectively, while coastlines in the remaining estuaries and inlets were relatively stable. The progradation rate of coastline near the active river course depended on the amount of incoming sediment from the Huanghe (Yellow River).
作者 黄海军 樊辉 HUANG Hai-Jun,FAN Hui  (Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, 266071) (Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, 266071; Graduate of School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100039)
出处 《海洋与湖沼》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2004年第4期 306-314,共9页 Oceanologia Et Limnologia Sinica
基金 国家高技术研究发展计划(863计划),国家自然科学基金
关键词 黄河三角洲 遥感监测 海岸变化 沉积 Huanghe (Yellow River) delta, Remote sensing, Coastline change, Sedimentation
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