结合田间根钻取样和图像扫描分析方法,研究了不同棉花品种根系的长度、直径和表面积动态及0～100cm深和0～40cm宽土壤范围内的空间分布特征.该方法与常规直尺测量结果相比相关系数R2达到0.899(n=1318),显示了较好的可靠性.研究结果表明,棉花平均根长密度(RLD)在花铃期为1.21～1.27mm·cm-3,吐絮后降至1.04～1.12 mm·cm-3,收花时为0.76 mm·cm-3.棉花根平均直径在不同基因型间存在显著差异,抗虫杂交棉的根直径最粗,平均为0.52 mm;早熟类型品种根直径较细,平均为0.36 mm.在土壤深度上根直径的差异不显著,但距棉行距离越远,根的平均直径越小.在明确根系长度和直径动态规律的基础上,提出了根表面积指数(RAI)的概念,与地上部叶面积指数具有相似的含义和生物学意义,且呈较好的指数相关关系(R2=0.779).RAI在生理发育时间(PDT)小于等于40前,其增长动态符合LOGISTIC生长规律(R2=0.849),在PDT大于40后,呈线性递减趋势(R2=0.570～0.895),且杂交抗虫棉的RAI在全生育期内均明显高于其它类型品种,而早熟类型品种相对略低.RAI空间分布特征表现为,开花前在浅根层内(0～30 cm)分布最多,花铃期以中层根系(40～60cm)为主,吐絮后主要以深层(70～100 cm)和距棉行较远的行间较多.研究结果为制定合理的施肥、灌溉措施提供了理论依据,并量化了棉花根系的时空变化,为进一步提高生长发育模拟模型的精度奠定了基础.
By combining root auger and image analysis methods for root sampling and measurement, this study investigated the dynamic characteristics of cotton plant root growth and the spatial distribution of root length, diameter and area. The experiment was conducted during 2001 and 2002 at an experiment station located in Anyang city, Henan Province. A root performance experiment of different genotypes was conducted in 2001 using 4 cotton cultivars: middle season hybrid `CRI29' with Bt, middle season variety `CRI35' without Bt, middle season variety `CRI32' with Bt and early season variety `CRI37' with Bt. Plant density was 60 000 plants per hectare. In 2002, the American middle season variety `33B' with Bt was included and measured in 40 cm×40 cm×100 cm deep soil pits. The soil was loam. Climate data from a nearby weather station were used to calculate the cotton physiological development time (PDT). Computation of PDT also integrated thermal effectiveness, photoperiod effectiveness, genetic effectiveness and its interactions. Root samples were collected at four distances from the cotton row: 0, 15, 25 and 35 cm. Root samples were collected from 40 cm×40 cm×100 cm deep soil pits and sampled every 10 cm from 0 to 100 cm soil depth at each location. The roots were sampled using a root auger that had a volume of 316.73 cm 3. The roots were washed form the soil core with all cotton roots collected in the samples. Cleaned roots were scanned to a black and white image at a resolution of 200 dpi. DT-SCAN software was used to calculate root length, root diameter and root surface area. Compared to the ruler measurement method to estimate root length density (RLD), the image analysis method using DT-SCAN for estimating RLD gave similar results (R 2=0.899, n=1 318). The results indicated that the RLD of cotton averaged 1.21-1.27 mm·cm -3 during flowering and boll stage, 1.04-1.12 mm·cm -3 after boll opening, and 0.76 mm·cm -3 during the harvest period. Root diameter was significantly different amon
Acta Phytoecologica Sinica