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一起流行性乙型脑炎暴发疫情的流行病学调查分析 预览 被引量:4

An Epidemiological Investigation and Analysis on Epidemic Situation of Epidemic Encephalitis B Outbreak
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摘要 目的分析流行性乙型脑炎(简称乙脑)的流行规律、流行特征及其影响因素,为制定防治对策提供依据.方法对本次疫情所有病例进行个案调查,采用人工小时法对人房、畜房蚊媒密度及种类进行监测,急性期血清用ELISA法进行乙脑IgM抗体检测.结果本次暴发疫情病例共计40例,发病率为2.7/10万;死亡6例,病死率为15.0%;流行高峰在5月下旬和6月上旬,占发病总数75.0%;发病年龄均为8岁以下儿童,其中1~6岁占92.5%;所有病例均分布在农村地区,97.5%为散居儿童;85.0%的病例无乙脑疫苗接种史;临床表现主要为高热、抽搐、嗜睡、昏迷和脑膜刺激征阳性;蚊媒监测显示当地主要蚊种构成为三带喙库蚊和骚扰阿蚊,两者所占比例在86.3%以上;采用抗体捕获ELISA法对39例病例进行血清学检测,乙脑IgM抗体阳性37例.结论近10年,广西自治区乙脑每年都有不同程度的发生和流行,做好农村地区散居儿童乙脑疫苗的全程接种工作,是阻止广西区乙脑暴发流行的关键措施. Objective The purpose of this study was to canvass the rules, characteristics and influential factors of epidemic encephalitis B (abbr. type B encephalitis) in order to provide a scientific basis for implementation of preventive and cure countermeasures. Methods Case investigation was applied to all epidemic cases by monitoring the density and species of mosquito medium in homes and corrals, and ELISA was used to determine IgM antibodies of type B encephalitis in serum samples at acute stage. Results There were a total of 40 onsets in this epidemic, with a rate of 2.7/lakh; 6 cases of death, with a mortality of 15.0%; the epidemic peak was between late May and early June, which accounted for 75% of the total; patients were all under 8 years old, of which those aged between 1 and 6 accounted for 92.5%; all cases were distributed in rural regions and 97.5% were scattered children resident; 85.0% of cases had no history of type B encephalitis vaccination; primary clinic manifestations were hyperpyrexia, spasm, lethargy and positive meningeal irritation sign; monitoring of mosquito medium indicated that the principal species of mosquito in local region was composed of Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Armigeres obturbans, accounting for a ratio higher than 86.3%; serological testing was used for 39 cases by antibody-capture ELISA, 37 of which were identified as type B encephalitis IgM antibody positive. Conclusion In the last decade, type B encephalitis took place and caught on yearly in Guangxi Autonomous Region at different levels of severity and the fulfillment of full-course vaccination among sporadically living children in rural regions is pivotal in preventing the outburst and epidemic of type B encephalitis in Guangxi.
作者 谢艺红 莫兆军 陈敏玫 周开姣 李艳萍 杨进业 冯向阳 XIE Yi-hong, MO Zhao-jun, CHEN Min-mei, ZHOU Kai-jiao, LI Yan-ping, YANG Jin-ye, FENG Xiang-yang. Center for Disease Control and Pevention of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Nanning 530021, China
出处 《疾病监测》 CAS 2005年第4期 180-182,共3页 Disease Surveillance
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  • 1卢绵汉. 医学生物制品学 [M]. 北京:人民卫生出版社 , 1995.528. 被引量:1
  • 2许珊珊.新昌县农村0~6岁儿童智残原因调查结果 [J].中华预防医学 杂志,1998,32(5):310-310. 被引量:1

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