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长期稻草还田对紫色水稻土肥力和生产力的影响 预览 被引量:69

Effects of long-term rice straw returning on the fertility and productivity of purplish paddy soil
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摘要 通过8年淹水条件下一季中稻的田间定位试验,研究了长期稻草还田以及稻草与不同化肥配合施用对紫色水稻土生产力和土壤肥力的影响.结果表明,稻草与N、P、K化肥配合施用能维持或提高紫色水稻土的生产力和土壤肥力;水稻获得了持续高产,土壤有机质和全氮含量提高,土壤磷的有效性增加,速效钾与试验前基本平衡.纯化肥处理尤其是N、NP、NK处理水稻产量、土壤氮和钾含量逐年降低,不能维持系统生产力和土壤肥力.稻草还田对翌年水稻具有显著的增产作用,8年平均稻草还田处理比对照增产39.5%,稻草的增产作用还随着稻草还田时间的延长而逐年升高.稻草还田携入的钾与化学钾肥具有相同的营养功效,稻草可替代部分化学钾肥. The gross amount of crop straw reached 6.73×10~8 t in China, among which the amount of rice straw account for 23.6%. However, 45—60 percent of crop straw were burnt or discarded, which not only wasted organic fertilizer source, but also polluted the environment. Recently, with the development of agriculture, chemical fertilizer was widely applied, but the quantity of barnyard manure and green manure decreased greatly. Straw is an important organic fertilizer source of paddy soil, and straw-returning play a significant role in alleviating the shortage of organic fertilizer input, strengthening nutrient recycle and increasing soil fertility and crop yield. According to our literature reviews, using long-term and systemic location experiment to research effects of straw-returning on soil fertility and crop yield are few. In this paper, we studied the effect of rice straw returned to soil and combinations of rice straw with different chemical fertilizers on fertility and productivity of purple paddy soil according to 8-year location experiment. Meanwhile, K nutrient effects, nutrient recycle and balance in straw were also analyzed to provide a scientific basis for reasonable use and optimum management of straw resource, and sustainable development of productivity of purple paddy soil. The field location experiment in purple paddy soil included 10 treatments: CK, N, NP, NK, NPK, M(rice straw-returning into soil ), MN, MNP, MNK, MNPK, respectively. Three replicates and the area of each plot was 6m~2. Rate of fertilization were N 150 kg/ha, P_2O_5 75kg/ ha, K_2O 75 kg/ ha, respectively, among which the P, K and 60% of N as basic dressing and 40%t of N as topdressing. The application rate of straws was 7500 kg/ ha. In later September each year, straws were chopped into 5—7cm fragments, and incorporated into plow layer, irrigate following. Paddy were transplanted in light of local planting specification. The results showed that single return the rice straw or combination rice straw with chemical fertilizer coul
作者 王玄德 石孝均 宋光煜 WANG Xuan-de, SHI Xiao-jun~*, SONG Guang-yu (College of Resources and Environment, Southwest Agricultural University, Chongqing 400716, China)
出处 《植物营养与肥料学报》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2005年第3期 302-307,共6页 Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer Science
基金 引进国际先进农业科技计划(948计划),重庆市科委资助项目
关键词 稻草还田 土壤肥力 水稻产量 定位试验 rice straw returning soil fertility rice yield located experiment
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