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中国区域水足迹的估算 预览 被引量:78

Water Footprint--An Application in Water Resources Research
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摘要 水足迹和虚拟水是目前国际水资源领域研究的热点问题.本文借助水足迹和虚拟水的概念,计算了我国及各区域主要农产品的虚拟水含量,通过分析区域的农产品生产和消费关系,计算了我国国际和国内区域间的虚拟水流量,以及相应的水足迹和水的自给率,并进行了相关分析.计算结果表明中国是一个水资源高度自给的国家,但区域间差别较大.绿色水在我国国内总用水中占具了较大份额,对于我国农业生产意义重大.北方地区通过农产品贸易1999年向南方地区输出的虚拟水达到520×108m3,对于保障我国的粮食安全发挥了不可替代的作用.本文同时认为,人的消费模式,特别是膳食结构对水资源消耗的影响非常显著,我国人均水足迹的计算结果与这一结论基本吻合,因此倡导节约的消费方式,研究并推荐符合中国国情的膳食结构,将有助于全面节水型社会的建设. Water footprint and virtual water are the hot topics in the field of international water resources research. This paper attempts to use the concept of virtual water and water footprint to calculate virtual water contents in major agricultural products. Furthermore, based on the relationship of production and consumption by regions, the paper calculated virtual water flows and water foot print and water self-sufficiency between China and other nations and between regions in China. The result indicates the total domestic water use was nearly 1 295 billion m^3 in 1999. Of which the green water accounts for 60 % of the total domestic water use, which has a significance role in agricultural production. In 1999, North China transported a virtual water volume of 52 billion m^3 to South China through agricultural products implying north China plays an import role in national food security. For water footprint,China had a volume of 1 304 billion m^3 and 1 049 m^3 per capita in 1999. For water self- sufficiency it was around 99% which means China is a country with high water self-sufficiency. However, the variation is huge among regions. The paper points out the consumption pattern especially the diet pattern has a strong influence on water consumption. The result of China' s water footprint per capita proves the conclusion. Therefore, promoting conservative consumption and diet pattern suitable for China' s situation will be helpful for establishment of a water-saving society. Although the concepts of water footprint and virtual water supplies are effective means to assess water consumption and water flows between nations or regions, calculation accuracy still has some problems as the agriculture products remain as major research objective and the products are diversified. If we extend our scope to industry and service sector, the result will change significantly. Therefore, further research on methodology is necessary and possible.
作者 马静 汪党献 来海亮 王茵 Ma Jing;Wang DangXian;Lai HaiLiang;Wang Yin
出处 《资源科学》 CSSCI 北大核心 2005年第5期 96-100,共5页 Resources Science
作者简介 马静(1973~),女,北京人,硕士,主要从事水资源规划、水资源可持续利用等方面研究.E-mail: majing06 @ hotmail. com; majing_ 06 @ yahoo. com. cn
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参考文献9

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