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气溶胶辐射特性的观测研究 预览 被引量:71

OBSERVATION STUDY OF AEROSOL RADIATIVE PROPERTIES OVER CHINA
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摘要 利用一个简化的辐射平衡模式,讨论了气溶胶直接辐射强迫和气溶胶辐射特性以及与地面反射率之间的关系.模式分析表明,增加气溶胶层以后,地气系统对太阳辐射的反射率可能增大,也可能减少,取决于气溶胶的单散射反射率-ω0、不对称度因子g与地面反射率αg之间的配置,但与气溶胶光学厚度δ没有直接的关系.气溶胶光学厚度值仅和反射率变化的幅度成正比.从辐射平衡模式的结果可知,为了定量地研究气溶胶直接辐射强迫作用,需要有系统的有关气溶胶辐射特性的观测资料.从地面和空间对中国地区气溶胶的辐射特性开展了观测研究,包括从地面用太阳光度计测量气溶胶的光学厚度、用浊度计测量气溶胶的散射系数、黑碳仪测量气溶胶的吸收系数,并且利用MODIS资料反演气溶胶的光学厚度.地面太阳光度计观测的气溶胶光学厚度用于检验卫星遥感的气溶胶光学厚度值,对中国东部地区,遥感的结果是可以接受的,主要是由于这一地区存在较低的地表反射率;但对中国北方植被条件不很好的地区,在遥感反演时对地面反射率的估计可能偏低,如做适当的修改还有可能提高遥感反演的精度.从地面直接测量气溶胶的散射系数和吸收系数算出的气溶胶单散射反射率在0.8左右,需要有更多的观测,以便进一步查清这一问题. A simple radiation balance model was used to simulate the variation of the aerosol direct radiative forcing with aerosol optical properties and surface reflectance. The results indicate when an aerosol layer is added into the original simple earth-atmosphere system, the apparent solar reflectance of the system may increase or decrease depending on the different combinations of aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA,ω0) , asymmetry factor (g) and surface reflectance (αg), but not directly related with aerosol optical depth (τ). The aerosol optical depth is proportional to the absolute value of the change of the apparent reflectance. The results also demonstrate that comprehensive observation data about aerosol radiative properties are very essential to quantitatively research on aerosol direct radiative forcing. In the recent years, we have investigated the aerosol radiative properties over China from space and in situ methods. The works include in situ measurements of aerosol optical depth by ground sun-photometers, measurements of aerosol scattering coefficient by nephelometers, measurements of aerosol absorption coefficient by aethalometers, and retrieval of aerosol optical properties by MODIS data. The results from sun-photometer observations are used to validate the MODIS standard products. For the region in Eastern China, the satellite remote sensing results can be acceptable mostly due to existing of the dark reflectance in this region. However, for the region without dense vegetation the surface reflectance results are possibly underestimated. Appropriate modification to the surface reflectance estimation may improve the accuracy of aerosol products. The value of SSA calculated from direct surface measurements of aerosol scattering and absorption in heating instruments is about 0.8. More observation is needed to further comprehensively investigate the question.
作者 毛节泰 李成才 Mao Jietai, Li Chengcai( Department of Atmospheric Science, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 )
出处 《气象学报》 CSCD 北大核心 2005年第5期622-635,共14页 Acta Meteorologica Sinica
基金 中国科学院资助项目
关键词 大气气溶胶 辐射特性 单散射反射率 光学厚度 吸收系数 直接辐射强迫 Atmospheric aerosols, Aerosol direct radiative forcing, Aerosol single scattering albedo,Aerosol optical depth
作者简介 毛节泰,1939年生,教授,博士生导师。主要从事大气辐射、云物理与大气气溶胶的探测与研究工作。
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