Markets in the Qin-Han period were more prosperous than the pre-Qin period , and commodities were abundant. There were mainly four sources ： the first is husbandry and textile goods produced by numerous petty farmers and specialized farmers; the second is handicrafts produced by private handicraftsmen ; the third is some of the industrial goods produced by government-run industries; the fourth is commodities from neighboring minority groups and commodities imported from foreign countries. There are mainly three types of merchandise circulations： the first is direct transaction between the petty farmers, as well as direct transaction between the petty farmers and petty handicraftsmen, which did not require involvement of mercnants as me intermediaries and is a lower level type of commerce. The second involved merchants as the intermediaries, which can be classified in two groups： In the first group, some petty farmers and petty professional merchants were involved in short distance trafficking in a small regional market; in the second group, big professional merchants and some officials and landlords are involved in long distance trafficking in regional markets and also in the whole national market. It is a higher level commercial form. The third is government owned commerce.
Journal of Sichuan University(Social Science Edition)
specialized household in production
transport over long distances for sale