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中国2006~2007年麻疹流行病学特征及消除麻疹措施分析 被引量:190

Analysis on Epidemiological Characteristics and Measures of Measles Control in China During 2006 --2007
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摘要 目的分析中国(未包括香港、澳门特别行政区和台湾地区,下同)2006~2007年麻疹流行病学特征及预防控制措施,为消除麻疹采取针对性措施提供依据。方法对全国麻疹发病及采取的预防控制措施进行描述流行病学分析。结果在2005年全国麻疹发病大幅回升后,2006年有所降低,但仍维持在较高水平;2007年报告发病率为8.29/10万,较2006年有所上升。部分西部省采取麻疹减毒活疫苗(Measles vaccine,Live;MV)强化免疫和加强常规免疫接种管理,麻疹发病有所减少,其中部分省2007年底疫情有所反弹,而西南地区和流动人口较多的东部地区发病有所增多或持续居高不下。总体仍呈以小年龄组人群发病为主的模式,〈15岁病例分别占2006、2007年总病例数的69.92%、73.69%,〈1岁病例分别占26.22%、24.70%;流动人口发病均占30%左右。结论MV常规免疫接种率和首针及时接种率不高,是麻疹高发的主要原因。提高易感人群MV免疫覆盖率,加强麻疹监测,控制医院内感染,适时开展高质量的MV强化免疫,是控制、消除麻疹的有效手段。 Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of measles in China during 2006--2007 and provide evidence for strategies and measures of measles elimination. Methods Analyze measles epidemiology and control measures with descriptive epidemiology. Results The reported measles incidence was lower in 2006 than in 2005, but still at a high level, and it was 8.29/100000 in 2007. After comducting provincial measles vaccine(MV) supplementary immunization activities and strengthening routine immunization management, some western provinces has a lower incidence rate, parts of these provinces, however, reported more cases in 2007. In some eastern and south-western provinces, the reported measles incidence was high all along during 2006-2007. The proportion of measles cases of 0-14 years old in 2006 and 2007 was 69. 92%, 73.69%, and the proportionn of 0-1 year old was 26.22%, 24.70%. Around 30% of all cases was migrant population both in 2006 and 2007. Conclusions Low coverage of MV was the main cause of high measles incidence in these years. To eliminate measles, we should strengthen routine vaccination, vaccinate childeren timely at 8 months old, conduct a good measles surveillance and prevent measles transmission in hospitals. Conducted measles vaccine supplementary immunization activities should be conducted at suitable time as well.
作者 马超 罗会明 安志杰 张萍 温宁 夏伟 李黎 MA Chao,LUO Hui-ming,AN Zhi-jie,et al. (National Immunization Programme,Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention ,Beijing 100050,China)
出处 《中国疫苗和免疫》 CAS 2008年第3期208-213,共6页 Chinese Journal of Vaccines and Immunization
关键词 麻疹 流行病学特征 消除 措施 Measles Epidemiology Elimination Measures
作者简介 马超(1979-),男,山东省费县人,中国疾病预防控制中心免疫规划中心实习研究员,硕士,主要从事麻疹等免疫规划疫苗可预防传染病监测和免疫规划管理工作。
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