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典型棉区地膜应用及污染现状的研究 被引量:45

The Use of Plastic Mulch Film in Typical Cotton Planting Regions and the Associated Environmental Pollution
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摘要 残膜污染已经成为影响棉区农田生态环境的重要因子,以黄河流域棉区(河北邯郸)和西北内陆棉区(新疆兵团)典型覆膜棉田为研究对象,通过农户问卷调查和典型样点采集的方式,对地膜的应用、回收及污染现状进行系统的研究。结果表明,由于气候条件和生产方式的不同,两个棉区地膜投入量差异很大,河北邯郸地区地膜投入量为33.0kg·hm^-2,农田覆膜比例为46.4%,而新疆地区地膜投入量为61.4kg·hm^-2,农田覆膜比例高达84.8%。两个棉区地膜回收率基本相当,但由于投入量不同,新疆地区棉田土壤残膜量远大于邯郸地区,河北邯郸地区棉田0~30cm土层残膜量平均为80.5kg·hm^-2,而新疆地区则达到208.5kg·hm^-2,是邯郸地区的2.59倍。残膜在土壤中主要分布在0—20cm的耕层中,从各层次残膜分布比重来看,新疆棉田土壤残膜污染程度更深。农户调查表明,绝大多数农民已经意识到地膜污染的危害性,特别是在新疆地区,但在回收处理以及再利用等方面还存在技术制约,影响了残膜的回收和污染治理。 Pollution caused by residual plastic film in agricultural fields has been an important factor that is contributing to the deterioration of the agricultural environment. This study was conducted in the Yellow River Basin cotton planting area( Handan city in Hebei Province) and in the western inland cotton planting area (production and construction corps in Xinjiang Province) in 2007. The input of plastic film, recovery and pollution of residual plastic film in the study areas were evaluated by means of farmer survey and field sampling. The results showed that the input amount of plastic film varied in the different cotton planting region due to the difference of climate condition and fanning system. The input amount of plastic film was 33 kg.hm^-2 in Handan, but in Xinjiang it reached 61.4 kg.hm^-2. There was no significantly different recovery ratio observed between both sites, but the amount of residual plastic film was quite different due to the difference of input amount. The average amount of residual plastic film in the soil (0-30 cm) was 80.5 kg.hm^-2 in Handan, but in Xinjiang it was 208.5 kg.hm^-2. The residual plastic film was mainly distributed in the tilled soil layer (0-20 cm) in both sites and the pollution in Xinjiang was more serious than that of Handan viewed from the depth of polluted soil layer. Most farmers bad realized the pollution of plastic film, but due to the lack of a suitable technique to recove and reuse, the plastic film pollution continuesd to be a big problem in these areas, especially in Xinjiang.
作者 何文清 严昌荣 刘爽 常蕊芹 王序俭 曹肆林 刘勤 HE Wen-qing, YAN Chang-rong, LIU Shuang, CHANG Rui-qin, WANG Xu-jian, CAO Si-lin, LIU Qin ( 1. Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, CAAS, Beijing 100081, China; 2.The Key Laboratory for Agro-environment & Climate Change, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100081, China; 3. Hebei Cheng'an County Agricultural Bureau, Cheng'an 056700, China; 4.Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural and Reclamation Science, Shihezi 832000, China)
出处 《农业环境科学学报》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2009年第8期 1618-1622,共5页 Journal of Agro-Environment Science( J. Agro-Environ. Sci.)
基金 “十一五”国家科技支撑计划“可生物降解地膜开发”(2006BAD07A06) “污染农田治理关键技术研究”(2006BAD17B04) “十一五”国家863项目“全降解保水地膜”(2006AA100216)
关键词 典型棉区 地膜应用回收 残膜污染 cotton planting area use and recovery of plastic film pollution from plastic mulch film
作者简介 何文清(1974-),男,内蒙古突泉人,副研究员,主要从事农田污染及旱地农业方面的研究。E-mail:hwq201@cjac.org.cn 通讯作者:严昌荣E-mail:Yancr@cjac.org.cn
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