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浅析柏拉图《克拉底鲁篇》的命名理论 预览

The Simple Exploration of the Theory of Naming about Plato's Cratylus
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摘要 名称是组成语言的基本成分。《克拉底鲁篇》以询问名称的起源和性质的方式对命名进行了探讨,最终论述了语言和“型”的关系。首先,柏氏之苏格拉底,通过否定“人是万物的尺度”的观点进而否定名称是约定的、随意制定的。确认名称有其专门永久的本质而且他通过否定“一切皆流,无物常住”等观点而否定名称有其自然本质和神(最初名称提供者)能够提供正确的名称的观点,最终得出:名称是立法家在辩证法家(dialectician)的指导下依照理想的名称。用字母、音节以天然适宜的方式命名的,但是天然适宜的方式不能从约定论或自然论得出。再次,由名称组成的语言是不完善的,通过名称和语言学习事物可能会受到欺骗,知识不能从以“人是万物的尺度”或“一切皆流,无物常住”为基础的名称(以及语言)得出,只能通过对事物本身的学习和研究去寻求事物的真相,寻求绝对的善、美和存在。获得真正的知识即关于绝对的存在、“型”的知识,让灵魂得到安宁,而不是让灵魂被流变的世界现象所迷惑。 Name is the basic element of language. Plato' s Cratylus probes the problems of naming in the way of inquiring the origins and nature of name, eventually expounds the relationship of language and"eidos". Firstly, Platonic Socrates, through dening that "Man is the criterion of everything", he denies that name is not made at random or by convention, then affirms that name should have its own permanent nature; moreover, he denies those notions, which thinks that "Everything flows, nothing permanently exists", etc. and that name has its own innate nature, the names which gods (the initial namegivers) offer are true; finally, he conclucles that name is made in naturally suitable way by lawmakers under the direction of dialecticians through using letters and syllables to imitate the ideal names, however, the naturally suitable way of naming can not deduce from names'naturalism and coventionhsm. Secondly, language composed with name is not perfect, we will be deceived if we getting knowledge through name and language. Knowledge can not be obtained from the name and language based on the proposition "Man is the criterion of everything" or "Everything flows, nothing permanently exists'and it could be only gotten from the learning and studying of things themselves; what is more, by seeking the absolute Good, Beauty, and Exsitenee, we can get the true knowledge, namely, the knowledge of the absolute exsistene, "edios", at the same time, ours souls can be calm rather than confused by the the rheologic phenomena of the world.
作者 王伟平 Wang Weiping (Philosophy Department at Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China)
出处 《清远职业技术学院学报》 2009年第4期 42-46,共5页 Journal of Qingyuan Polytechnic
关键词 名称 “型” 自然论 约定论 模仿 name "eidos" naturalism conventionalism imitation
作者简介 作者简介:王伟平(1984-),男,湖北蕲春人,在读硕士研究生。
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参考文献2

  • 1(古希腊)柏拉图著;王晓朝译,.柏拉图全集 第1卷[M],2002:536.
  • 2(古希腊)亚里士多德(Aristotle)著,吴寿彭.形而上学[M]商务印书馆,1959. 被引量:1

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