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中国1985-2005年部分少数民族学生身体机能和素质的发展趋势研究 被引量:7

Changes of physical functions among Chinese minority students from 1985 to 2005
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摘要 目的探讨1985—2005年中国部分少数民族学生身体机能、素质发展趋势。方法利用1985-2005年全国学生体质调查资料,对蒙古族、回族、维吾尔族、壮族、朝鲜族、藏族、瑶族、黎族、羌族、布依族、侗族、苗族、土族、撒拉族、柯尔克孜族15个少数民族7~18岁中、小学生的身体机能及素质发展进行了分析。结果部分少数民族学生的生理机能和运动素质的部分指标均有所提高,但也有部分指标出现明显的下降趋势;大部分少数民族男女生速度素质明显提高,但耐力素质和肺活量出现显著的下降;部分少数民族学生耐力素质较好;朝鲜族男女学生各项运动素质出现全面下降。例如,柯尔克孜族学生在肺活量水平和速度素质方面表现突出;维吾尔族学生体格发育和肺活量水平相对较高,但在跑、跳等方面较差,反映下肢爆发力是其弱项;相反,黎族和壮族男女学生在跑、跳、男生肩背肌肉力量以及耐力等方面都表现出非常良好的素质。结论各少数民族学生在生理机能和运动素质方面具备各自的优势和特点,可能与其生活环境和习惯有关。 Objective To study the changes of physical functions among minority students in China from 1985 to 2005, to provide evidence for health promotion to the minority students in the country. Methods Using data from the Chinese national survey on students physical fitness and health from 1985 to 2005, we analyzed the physical functions of 15 minority groups from primary and secondary schools, including Mongolian, Hui, Uygur, Zhuang, Korean, Tibetan, Yao, Li, Qiang, Buyi, Dong, Miao, Tu, Salar, Kirgiz, aged 7-18 years old. Results Some of the minority students had the higher levels of physiological functions and athletic ability, but some indicators decreased significantly. In terms of items related to 'speed' , most of the minority boys and girls improved, but items related to 'endurance' or 'vital capacity', were significantly declining. Part of the minority students had better 'endurance' than students of Han ethnicity in the cities. All the indicators of athletic ability declined in schoolboys and schoolgirls of Korean ethnicity. Kirgiz students were outstanding in vital capacity and speed quality while Uighur students had better physical development and vital capacity, but were poorer in running and jumping, reflecting the weakness of explosive power of lower limbs. On the contrary, Li and Zhuang students had shown a very good quality in running, jumping, male shoulder muscular strength and endurance items, etc. Conclusion The physical functions and the athletic ability of the minority students in China had the advantages and characteristics, which might be related to their living environment and habits.
作者 马军 张伋 吴双胜 宋逸 胡佩瑾 张兵 MA Jun, ZHANG Ji, WU Shuang-sheng, SONG Yi, HU Pei-fin, ZHANG Bing.( School of Public Health / Institute of Child and Adolescent Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China)
出处 《中华流行病学杂志》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2009年第10期1039-1042,共4页 Chinese Journal of Epidemiology
关键词 身体机能 运动素质 少数民族 学生 Physical function Athletic ability Minority Students
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