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“自我主义”抑或“互以对方为重”——“差序格局”和“伦理本位”的一个尖锐分歧 被引量:17

Egoism' or 'Reciprocal Other-centeredness'?——A Sharp Difference between 'Differential Mode of Society' and 'Ethics-based Society
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摘要 在研究中国传统社会结构和传统中国人行为的领域中,费孝通所提出的“差序格局”和梁漱溟所提出的“伦理本位”大概是最具影响力的两个理论,它们之间既存在一些共通之处,也有一些深刻的分歧。其中最突出的分歧在于对中国人行为取向的判断,费孝通认为中国人是自私的,其行为可概括为“自我主义”;梁漱溟认为中国人不自私,而是“互以对方为重”。本文认为这一分歧的理论背景是20世纪上半叶的“民族性”大讨论,作为这一讨论的典型代表,“自我主义”和“互以对方为重”各存在一些理论上的得失之处。 In the area of research on the structure of Chinese traditional society and the behavioral pattern of traditional Chinese people, two theories are probably most predominant and pervasive, i.e., the theory of "differential mode of society" proposed by Fei Xiaotong and the theory of "ethics-based society" proposed by Liang Shuming. These two theories are in agreement on some points, but their differences are also profound. The most prominent difference is their judgment of the fundamental value that underlies Chinese's people's behavior. Fei Xiaotong describes Chinese people as self-centered and suggests that their behavior be generally labeled as "egoism". Liang Shuming, on the other hand, insists that Chinese people are not selfish, but rather "other-centered". This paper tries to restore the two categorically different theories to its historical background of the nationwide debate on "national characteristics" in the first half of the 20fh century. Being the two representative theories in the debate, Fei's "egoism" theory and Liang's "other-centeredness" theory actually have both strength and weakness.
作者 廉如鉴 张岭泉 Lian & Zhang
出处 《开放时代》 CSSCI 2009年第11期 68-78,共11页 Open Times
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