The chinaware with Shendetang marks have ever been introduced in many papers, but the questions such as 'what is the relationship between Emperor Daoguang ( 道光皇帝) and Shendetang ( 慎德堂)?' 'does 'Shende' imply Emperor Daoguang’s concept of reign? ' 'are the chinaware with Shendetang marks specially made for the use of emperors?' stimulate the author to carry further research on the issues in his reregistering, documenting, checking of the porcelain of the middle and late Qing dynasty. The paper makes further analysis of the time when the works are fired as a result of the study of the variety, shape of the porcelain as well as the location of Shendetang in Gardens of Perfect Clarity(yuan ming yuan 圆明园).
Palace Museum Journal
Gardens of Perfect Clarity(yuan ming yuan 圆明园)
Emperor Daoguang ( 道光)
Notes on Shendetang (Shen De Tang Ji《慎德堂记》)