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生物炭对土壤肥料的作用及未来研究 预览 被引量:187

Effects of Biochar on Soil and Fertilizer and Future Research
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摘要 为了促进中国生物炭的研究及农用,笔者回顾和综述了国内外有关生物炭的研究文献和发现,并提出了生物炭未来研究方向。总结如下:生物炭是生物质在无氧或微氧条件下低温热转化后的固体副产物,是有机碳含量高、多孔性、碱性、吸附能力强、多用途的材料。生物炭能够提高土壤有机碳含量,改善土壤保水、保肥性能,减少养分损失,有益于土壤微生物栖息和活动,特别是菌根真菌,是良好的土壤改良剂。在一些情况下,单施生物炭就能够促进作物生长或增产,但是生物炭与肥料混施,或复合后对作物生长及产量几乎都表现为正效应,这缘于肥料消除了生物炭养分低的缺陷,而生物炭赋予肥料养分缓释性能的互补和协同作用。生物炭延缓肥料在土壤中的养分释放,降低养分损失,提高肥料养分利用率,生物炭是肥料的增效载体。生物炭在土壤中极为稳定,可长期将碳固定于土壤,是固碳的潜力载体。利用废弃生物质生产生物炭,并将生物炭农用将是多赢的技术。但是,生物炭的研究仍存在许多问题,需要进行广泛深入的研究。因此,中国应加强生物炭的基础及应用研究,促进生物炭的生产及农用,推动21世纪农业的"黑色革命"。 In order to boost the study and agricultural utilization of biochar in China,in the article,the research literatures and findings about biochar were retrospected and reviewed,and future research issues were suggested,the summaries were as follows:biochar was a solid byproduct derived from biomass pyrolysis in low or zero oxygen environment,highly organic carbon content,porous,alkaline,highly capability of adsorption,multi-propose materials.Biochar was an excellent soil amendment which could increase soil organic carbon content,improve soil water-holding and nutrient-retention capacity,reduce nutrient losses from soils,and was beneficial to inhabit and activity of microbes in soils,especially for mycorrhizal fungi (MF).Biochar alone increased crop growth and yield in specific circumstances,but the effects of the co-application or combination of biochar with fertilizers on crop growth and yield showed positive in nearly all soils,which was attributed to reciprocal or synergistic effects of both fertilizer and biohcar because of fertilizer alleviating nutrient deficiency of biochar itself which endowed fertilizer with nutrient slow release characteristics.Biochar delayed nutrient release of fertilizer to soil,reduced nutrient losses from fertilizer and soil,increased nutrient utilizing efficiency,and was efficient-promoting carrier to fertilizer.Biochar was a carbon-sequestrating carrier which was extremely stable in soil,and could sequestrate carbon in soils for hundreds to thousand years.The multi-win technology was the thermal conversion of biomass wastes into biochar which was used to agriculture.However widely and deeply studies should be given to many issues about biochar.Thus,strong emphasis will given to basic and applied research on biochar in order to boost biochar production and agricultural use,finally agricultural 'black revolution' in 21st century.
作者 何绪生 张树清 佘雕 耿增超 高海英 He Xusheng ,Zhang Shuqing ,She Diao ,Geng Zengchao ,Gao Haiying (1 Environment and Resources College,Northwest A & F University,Yangling Shaanxi 712100;2 Institute of Agriculture Resources and Regional Planning,CAAS,Beijing 100081)
出处 《中国农学通报》 CSCD 北大核心 2011年第15期 16-25,共10页 Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin
基金 国家林业局948项目(2009-4-64) 农业部948项目(2010-Z19) 陕西省攻关项目(2010K02-12-1)
关键词 生物炭 土壤 肥料 固碳潜力 未来研究 biochar soil fertilizer carbon sequestration potential future research
作者简介 何绪生,男,1962年出生,副教授,博士,主要从事废弃物肥料资源化利用、新型肥料与产业化研究。通信地址:712100陕西省杨凌示范区台城路3号西北农林科技大学资源环境学院,Tel:029-87082772,E-mail:hexia02001bj@yahoo.com.cn 通讯作者:耿增超,男,1962年出生,陕西韩城人,教授,硕士,主要从事农林废弃物资源化利用及森林土壤的研究。通信地址:71210陕西省杨凌示范区台城路3号西北农林科技大学资源环境学院,Tel:029-87032276,E-mail:gengzengehao@sina.com.cn
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