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地下工程建设安全面临的挑战与对策 预览 被引量:173

CHALLENGES FACED BY UNDERGROUND PROJECTS CONSTRUCTION SAFETY AND COUNTERMEASURES
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摘要 详细介绍我国地下工程建设的安全管理现状和我国地下工程建设安全的严峻形势。从事故发生的类型和原因等对工程建设事故进行分析,指出责任事故及主观原因是构成地下工程建设安全管理巨大挑战的主因。结合海恩安全金字塔、海因里希安全法则、约翰逊的工程变化-失误理论模型等工程事故管理理论,提出工程事故预防的可行性和工程建设安全管理实施的对策。对重大地下工程建设中最突出的突水突泥地质灾害和岩爆地质灾害进行详细阐述,主要介绍突水突泥灾害的严重挑战、发生发展的科学规律、事故前兆信息分析以及地质超前预报等事故对策;介绍岩爆地质灾害的定义和分类、岩爆的预测机制、岩爆监测预报的理论基础和工程实践以及岩爆灾害的施工对策等。最后,针对地下工程建设的事故预防提出技术方法和管理手段的一些意见和建议。 The status quo of safety management in China's underground projects construction was introduced. Based on the accidents statistics, the serious security situation of underground projects construction was certificated. The analysis of types and causes for accidents indicated that the responsibility and subjective reasons are the great challenges for security management. Combining with Hain's safety pyramid theory, Heinrich's safety rules and Johnson's changes-errors model, the concept that accidents can be prevented by risk management measures was established, and some suggestions for accidents prevention were put forward. Besides, the mechanism and control measures for two typical geological hazards, i.e. water and mud outbursts and rockburst, were represented. For the study of water and mud outbursts, the laws of occurrence and development, the precursory information theory, the geological prediction methods and other incident countermeasures were introduced. For the control measures of rockburst, the definition and classification of rockbursts, the prevention mechanism, theoretical basis and engineering practice for monitoring and prediction, as well as the construction measures, were introduced. Some opinions and suggestions on technical methods and management tools were put forward for the accident prevention for underground projects construction.
作者 钱七虎 QIAN Qihu (Engineering Institute of Engineers Corps, PLA University of Science and Technology, ,liangsu, Nanjing 210007, China)
出处 《岩石力学与工程学报》 EI CAS CSCD 北大核心 2012年第10期1945-1956,共12页 Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering
关键词 地下工程 安全事故 风险管理 突水突泥 岩爆 地质灾害 underground engineering: safety accident risk management water and mud outbursts rockburst geological disaster
作者简介 钱七虎(1937-),男,1965年毕业于前苏联莫斯科古比雪夫军事工程学院,现任中国工程院院士,主要从事地下工程与隧道工程方面的教学与研究工作。E-mail:gcyqqh@163.com.
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