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陕南秦巴山区油菜施肥现状评价 预览 被引量:8

Fertilization evaluation of rapeseed in Qin - Ba mountain area of southern Shaanxi Province
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摘要 在陕南秦巴山区测土配方施肥项目(2006-2009年)11个县2576户调查数据基础上,对该地区油菜施肥现状及农户养分资源投入进行了系统分析和评价。结果表明,陕南秦巴山区油菜平均产量为2355kg/hm^2,产量中等的农户占60.68%。总氮(N)、磷(P2O5)、钾(K2O)养分投入量分别为179、80、54kg/hm^2,其中化肥氮(N)、磷(P2O5)、钾(K2O)养分投入量分别为145、62、34kg/hm^2。整体化肥氮磷钾施用量与产量都有显著的相关性,且各养分投入均表现出报酬递减趋势。根据养分分级等级,农户化肥氮磷钾肥投入合理比例分别为38.55%、27.60%和25.89%,过量的比例分别为15.22%、26.24%和10.33%,不足比例分别为46.23%、46.16%和63.78%。将化肥养分投入不足的农户施肥量增加到合理水平,陕南秦巴山区油菜可增产5.62万吨。另外,施用有机肥和硼肥的农户比例分别只有45.26%和41.73%;施用硼肥平均增产101kg/hm^2,说明通过合理施肥,该区油菜产量仍有较大增产潜力。该区域油菜施肥存在的问题是:氮肥和磷肥投入过量和不足并存,钾肥、硼肥和有机肥投入不足比较普遍。今后该区域油菜施肥的重点是平衡氮肥和磷肥用量;增加钾肥、硼肥和有机肥用量;增加追肥的施用,尤其是钾肥。 Household survey was carried out by soil testing formulated fertilization project from 2006 to 2009 in Qin-Ba mountain area of southern Shaanxi. The object was to evaluate current situation of fertilizer application and problems of nutrients input by households on rapeseed in this region. Data was collected from 2 576 households in11 counties. Results showed that in this area, the average yield of rapeseed was 2 355kg/hm^2 over 60.68% households. The rates of total N, P2O5 and K2O were 179, 80 and 54kg/hm^2 respectively. Among them, the chemical fertilizer rates were 145, 62 and 34kg/hm^2 respectively. Yield had significant correlation with chemical fertilizers. Diminishing return was found in each fertilizer input. According to yield level classification, households with rational chemical fertilizer (of N, P2O5 and K2O) rates were 38.55%, 27.60% and 25.89% respectively, while households with excessive application were 15.22%, 26.24% and 10.33% respectively, and households with insufficient application were 46.23%, 46.16% and 63.78% respectively. The survey showed that, if the chemical fertilizer was supplied at a rational level, the yield would increase 56.1 thousand tons. Using boron fertilizer would increase 101kg/hm^2 in yield. Moreover, households using organic and boron fertilizer were only 45.26% and 41.73% respectively, which could further increased. The problems of fertilizer input in this region were irrational nitrogen and phosphate inputs, as well as insufficient potassium, boron fertilizer and organic manure input. It was recommended to balance the nitrogen and phosphate application, increase potassium and boron fertilizers, increase organic manure inputs, and increase top dressing fertilizers, especially potassium.
作者 王小英 刘芬 同延安 赵佐平 WANG Xiao-ying, LIU Fen, TONG Yan-an, ZHAO Zuo-ping( 1. College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China ; 2. Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong 723001, China)
出处 《中国油料作物学报》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2013年第2期190-195,共6页 Chinese Journal of Oil Crop Sciences
基金 国家公益性行业(农业)科研专项(201103003) 国际植物营养研究所(IPNI)
关键词 陕南秦巴山区 油菜 产量 化肥 有机肥 平衡施肥 Qin - Ba mountain area of southern Shaanxi Rapeseed Yield Chemical fertilizer Organic ma-nure Balance application
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