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我国防止雾霾污染的对策与建议 被引量:45

Recommended Measures for Controlling Haze Pollution in China
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摘要 一般认为煤炭和石油对雾霾的贡献最大,尤其是燃煤电厂,因为煤炭占我国能源消费量的90%,燃煤电厂约占煤炭消费量的50%。我国防止雾霾污染的对策应基于:解决气候变化与环境保护问题,要靠发展非化石能源毕其功于一役是难以办到的,我们应像发达国家那样,先解决好化石能源利用中的环境问题,然后再解决化石能源利用中的气候变化问题。电力是最能清洁利用煤炭的部门,我国燃煤电厂的烟尘和二氧化硫控制已达到世界先进水平,已不是形成雾霾的主要原因。短期内应对雾霾气候的措施为:下决心解决好大气、水、土壤污染;控制大气污染要把控制PM2.5放在重要位置;天然气要优先用于替代分散的燃煤部门,并把替代下来的煤炭交给煤电厂应用;如果我国煤炭消费量中的80%~90%的煤炭供燃煤电厂用,就可控制燃煤污染。燃煤电厂对降低燃煤污染物排放负有重要责任。 The generally held view is that coal and petroleum have contributed most to the haze haunting some Chinese cities.Coal represents 90% of China's total energy consumption and coal-fired power plants consume 50% of all coal used in China.The measures taken by China to prevent haze pollution should be based on this understanding--it is not possible to solely rely on non-fossil fuels to resolve the issues of climate change and environmental protection and we should first resolve the environmental issues related to use of fossil fuels and then the climate change issues related to use of fossil fuels as the developed world is doing. Electricity is the sector that is most likely to achieve clean use of coal.Chinese coal-fired power plants are already at the forefront of soot and sulfur dioxide control worldwide and these pollutants are not the culprits of haze already.The short-term measures for combating haze include:Controlling air,water and soil pollution; giving priority to control of PM2.5 when controlling air pollution;and using natural gas to replace coal used in highly fractured sectors first and supplying the coal replaced to coal-fired power plants.If 80%-90% of China's coal is consumed by coal-fired power plants,pollution from coal combustion in China will be brought under effective control.Coal-fired power plants have important responsibility for reducing the emission of pollutants from coal combustion.
作者 朱成章 Zhu Chengzhang (Former Policy & Rules Department of Energy Ministry,Beijing 100045)
出处 《中外能源》 CAS 2013年第6期1-4,共4页 China Foreigh Energy
关键词 雾霾 化石能源 石油 煤炭 燃煤电厂 大气污染 haze fossil fuels petroleum coal coal-fired power plant air pollution
作者简介 朱成章,教授级高级工程师,享受政府特殊津贴,1953牟毕业于清华大学水力发电电机专业。曾任原能源部政策法规司副司长,曾任中国能源研究会副秘书长、学术委员会主任,主要从事能源、电力计划、规划和政策研究工作。
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