目的研究汽车制造业工人颈肩痛(neck and shoulder pain,NSP)患病情况和危险因素,为NSP的预防提供依据。方法2017年11月5~19日,通过整群抽样方法选择某汽车厂工龄满1年的446名工人进行问卷调查,采用χ2检验和非条件logistic回归分析研究工人NSP发生相关的影响因素。结果该汽车厂工人NSP年患病率为34.8%。多因素回归分析显示,年龄(OR=2.18,95%CI:1.49~3.18)、工作体力疲劳感(OR=4.52,95%CI:1.27~16.00)、部门人员短缺(OR=1.66,95%:1.04~26.68)、以不舒适的姿势搬举重物(OR=2.10,95%CI:1.16~3.81)、经常颈部前倾(OR=2.25,95%:1.39~3.66)、长时间坐姿工作(OR=2.42,95%CI:1.06~5.56)是NSP发生的危险因素,工间休息充足(OR=0.58,95%CI:0.36~0.94)是NSP发生的保护因素。结论汽车制造业工人NSP患病率较高,搬举重物、不良劳动姿势、不合理的劳动组织是影响NSP的主要危险因素;而适当的工间休息可以有效的降低NSP风险。应开展有效工效学干预措施,以预防汽车制造业工人NSP的发生。
Objective To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of neck and shoulder pain (NSP) among automobile manufacturing workers and to provide a theoretical basis for prevention of NSP. Methods From November 5 to November 19, 2017, a total 446 works who had worked for more than one year were recruited from an automobile plant by cluster sampling method. Chi square test and unconditional logistic regression were used to exam the relation between influencing factors and NSP. Results The annual prevalence rate of NSP was 34.8%. Multifactor regression analysis showed that age、work fatigue、department staff shortages、lifting heavy objects in awkward positions、neck flexion foreword and prolong sitting position work were the risk factors of NSP (OR=2.18, 95%CI:1.49~3.18;OR=4.52, 95%CI:1.27~16.00;OR=1.66, 95%CI:1.04~26.68;OR=2.10, 95%CI:1.16~3.81;OR=2.25, 95%CI:1.39~3.66;OR=2.42, 95%CI:1.06~5.56) and work break was the benefit factors of NSP (OR=0.58, 95% CI:0.36~0.94). Conclusion The annual prevalence rate of NSP among automobile manufacturing workers was high. Lifing heavy objects、awkward working positions and unreasonable work arrangement were the major risk factors of NSP, and work break can effectively reduce the risk of NSP. Effective ergonomic intervention should be carried out to prevent the occurrence of NSP.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Neck and shoulder pain
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders