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突发事件下高层建筑楼梯疏散最佳策略分析 被引量:12

Optimal strategy for high-rise building evacuation with stairs under emergency
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摘要 为尽快将人员安全快速地疏散到安全区域,最大程度降低高层建筑突发火灾等事件造成的损失,提出一个在高层建筑紧急疏散中以系统中疏散等待时间为优化目标、依靠楼梯疏散的潜在风险高的楼层优先疏散的策略。依据楼层危险情况将疏散过程分为突发危险楼层疏散以及剩余楼层疏散2个阶段,依次判定各楼层的疏散顺序。根据最大流原理,安排高层建筑紧急疏散。研究结果表明:采用该策略不仅能使系统疏散时间最少,而且能使系统总的疏散等待时间最短;突发危险楼层待疏散人数越少,该策略的有效性越明显;潜在风险的引入同时使该策略体现出社会公平性。 In order to evacuate people to safe areas and reduce losses sudden fires and other events brought, an optimal strategy giving priority to residents with high potential risk was worked out for high-rise buildings under emergency. Minimizing the total evacuation waiting time was taken as the goal of optimization. The evacuation process was partitioned into two stages: evacuation of floors with sudden risk and evacuation of rest of floors. Then, each floor evacuation order was determined. On basis of principle of maximum flow, emergency evacuation of high-rise building was arranged. The results show that with the strategy, the waiting time of all evacuees during whole evacuation is shortest, that less number of evacuees on floor with sudden risk is, the more obvious the effictiveness of strategy is, and that introduction of potential risk makes the strategy reflect social equity.
作者 王芳 何胜学 向乐佳 WANG Fang ,HE Sheng-xue, XIANG Le-jia ( Business School, University of Shanghai for Science & Technology,Shanghai
出处 《中国安全科学学报》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2014年第7期88-92,共5页 China Safety Science Journal
基金 国家自然科学基金资助(71171135) 上海市一流学科建设项目(S1201YLXK) 上海市(第3期)重点学科(S30504) 上海市教委科技创新项目(10YS105).
关键词 楼梯疏散 紧急疏散 高层建筑 等待时间 潜在风险 stair evacuation emergency evacuation high-rise building waiting time potential risk
作者简介 王芳(1988-),女,山东潍坊人,硕士研究生,研究方向为交通网络建模。E-mail:sdwfwangfang@163.com 副教授
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