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星形胶质细胞对兴奋性氨基酸神经递质的调控及与癫痫的关系 预览 被引量:6

Regulation of Excitatory Amino Acid Neurotransmitter by Astrocytes and Its Impact to Epilepsy
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摘要 星形胶质细胞是中枢神经系统中最为丰富的细胞类型,其主要生理功能之一是调控中枢神经递质的稳态,从而在维持中枢神经兴奋性和抑制性平衡中扮演着关键性的角色。星形胶质细胞这种功能对调控胞外兴奋性神经递质谷氨酸和抑制性神经递质γ-氨基丁酸(γ-aminobutyric acid,GABA)尤为突出,即星形胶质细胞可通过谷氨酸-谷氨酰胺-GABA循环对正常状态下抑制性和兴奋性神经递质的循环利用具有重要意义,此外对避免因胞外谷氨酸蓄积造成的兴奋性毒性同样不可或缺。星形胶质细胞功能紊乱如谷氨酸转运体、谷氨酰胺合成酶、谷氨酸脱氢酶的减少可损伤或削弱星形胶质细胞调控神经递质的功能,可表现为胞外谷氨酸水平升高同时伴有GABA水平降低,这种病理改变与癫痫的发生发展密切相关。该文就星形胶质细胞对神经递质的调控及与癫痫的关系进行综述。 Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type in central nervous system, exerting essential physiological functions to keep balance between the excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter levels, especially in the regulation of glutamate and GABA. Astrocytes could preserve cells from the potential toxicity caused by the glutamate accumulation through the glutamine-glutamate-GABA cycle;besides,the cycle between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters is of great significance under normal condition. Dysfunction of astrocytes, such as a decrease in glutamate transporters,glutamine synthetase or glutamate dehydrogenase, is closely related to occurrence and development of epilepsy. This paper mainly reviews the research progression in how astrocytes regulate neurotransmitters and the causative role of astrocyte dysfunction in epilepsy.
作者 凌鹏 李月月 钱恒 连晓媛 LING Peng, LI Yue-yue, QIAN Heng, LIAN Xiao-yuan( 1. Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei, 230038, China; 2. Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China)
出处 《神经药理学报》 2015年第2期46-53,共8页 Journal of Hebei North University:Medical Edition
基金 国家自然科学基金项目(No.81072617)
关键词 星形胶质细胞 谷氨酸 癫痫 astrocytes glutamate epilepsy
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