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长期施用氮磷钾肥和石灰对红壤性水稻土酸性特征的影响 预览 被引量:19

Effect of Long-term Fertilization and Lime Application on Soil Acidity of Reddish Paddy Soil
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摘要 利用34年的长期定位施肥试验,研究不施肥(CK)、施氮磷钾肥(NPK)和氮磷钾化肥配施石灰(NPK+Ca O)对红壤性水稻土不同形态酸、土壤盐基离子及水稻植株阳离子吸收量的影响,探讨土壤交换性H+和Al3+占交换性酸的比例、土壤盐基离子、植株带出阳离子数量与土壤酸度的关系。结果表明,长期NPK处理早、晚稻土壤p H较CK处理分别降低0.2和0.3个单位,交换性酸提高2.3倍和4.2倍,水解性酸提高35.4%和40.0%;NPK+Ca O处理早、晚稻土壤p H较NPK处理分别提高0.5和0.7个单位,较CK处理分别提高0.3和0.4个单位,交换性酸、水解性酸均显著低于NPK和CK处理(p〈0.05)。土壤交换性H+、Al3+含量高低顺序均为NPK+Ca O〈CK〈NPK。土壤交换性盐基离子以交换性Ca2+所占比例最大(81.8%~89.3%),NPK+Ca O处理交换性Ca2+较CK和NPK处理分别提高40.1%和62.9%。交换性Ca2+、交换性盐基离子、盐基饱和度与土壤p H正相关,与交换性酸、水解性酸负相关,交换性Mg2+与交换性酸、水解性酸负相关,交换性Na+与水解性酸负相关。植株移出带走的钙、镁、钾、钠离子量及其总量对土壤p H、交换性酸和水解性酸有一定影响,但其相关性均不显著。研究表明长期施用化肥条件下通过配施石灰可有效缓解稻田土壤的酸化,促进酸性稻田土壤的生态修复与改良。 Soil acidification is a main form of soil degradation and also a main factor limiting sustainable development of agriculture therein. In recent years,due to aggravating acid deposition and frequent agricultural practices,including increasing fertilization rate,harvesting crops with nutrients removed,etc.,soil acidification of the farmlands is speeding up. Therefore how to ameliorate or remedy acidified soils and its mechanism have become subjects of some important theoretical and practical significance to rebuilding healthy soil and guaranteeing national food security. Based on a 34-year long stationary fertilization experiment,effects of no fertilization(CK),application of NPK fertilizer(NPK)and application of NPK fertilizer plus lime(NPK+Ca O)on soil p H,exchangeable acidity,hydrolytic acidity,soil cation exchange capacity,base-exchangeable ions,rice yield and plant cation absorption,and further on proportion of exchangeable H+,Al3+ to exchangeable acidity,soil base-exchangeable ions,base-exchangeable ions removal by plant with harvest and their relationships with soil acidity. Results show that long-term application of chemical fertilizers(NPK)leads to soil acidification,and mitigates the effect when lime is amended(NPK+Ca O). After 34 years of rice cultivation of double cropping system,Treatment NPK was 0.2 and 0.3 lower in soil p H,2.3 and 4.2 times higher in exchangeable acidity,and 35.4% and 40.0% higher in hydrolytic acidity than CK(p〈0.05)in the soil under early rice and under late rice,respectively,while Treatment NPK+Ca O was 0.5 and 0.7 higher than NPK,and 0.3 and 0.4 higher than with CK in soil p H in the early and late rice seasons,respectively,and much lower than Treatment NPK and CK in exchangeable acidity and hydrolytic acidity in both rice seasons(p〈0.05). In terms of exchangeable H+ and exchangeable Al3+,the three treatments in the experiment followed an order of NPK+Ca O 〉 CK 〉 NPK. Exchangeable Al3+ was dominant to exchangeable acidity in
作者 鲁艳红 廖育林 聂军 周兴 谢坚 杨曾平 吴浩杰 LU Yanhong,LIAO Yulin,NIE Jun,ZHOU Xing,XIE Jian,YANG Zengping,WU Haojie(1 Soil and Fertilizer Institute of Hunan Province, Changsha 410125, China;2 Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Arable Land Conservation(Hunan ) , Ministry of Agriculture, Changsha 410125, China;3 College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China;4 Longping Branch of Graduate College, Central South University, Changsha 410128, China )
出处 《土壤学报》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2016年第1期202-212,共11页 Acta Pedologica Sinica
基金 国家自然科学基金项目(41401340) 湖南省自然科学基金项目(14JJ6061) 国家科技支撑计划项目(2013BAD07B11)资助
关键词 长期施肥 石灰 红壤性水稻土 酸性特征 盐基离子 Long-term fertilizer Lime Reddish paddy soil Acidification Exchangeable base
作者简介 鲁艳红(1974-),女,湖北武穴人,博士,副研究员,主要从事植物营养与作物高效施肥研究。E—mail:luyanhong6376432@163.com 通讯作者Corresponding author,E-mail:junnie@foxmail.com
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