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展望大数据时代的地球空间信息学 预览 被引量:70

Towards Geo-spatial Information Science in Big Data Era
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摘要 20世纪90年代,随着全球信息化和互联网的推进,地球空间信息学应运而生,推动了数字地球和数字城市的建设。21世纪以来,随着全球信息化与工业化的高度集成发展,出现了物联网和云计算,人类进入了大数据时代。本文论述大数据时代地球空间信息学的特点(无所不在、多维动态、互联网+网络化、全自动与实时化、从感知到认知、众包与自发地理信息、面向服务)和必须解决的主要关键技术问题(全球空天地一体化的非线性地球参考框架构建技术、星基导航增强技术、天地一体化网络通信技术、多源成像数据在轨处理技术、天基信息智能终端服务技术、天基资源调度与网络安全、基于载荷的多功能卫星平台设计与研制)。本文最后给出大数据时代地球空间信息学的新定义,即地球空间信息学是用各种手段和集成各种方法对地球及地球上的实体目标(physical objects)和人类活动(human activities)进行时空数据采集、信息提取、网络管理、知识发现、空间感知认知和智能位置服务的一门多学科交叉的科学和技术。从这个新定义出发,地球空间信息学将在构建智慧地球和智慧城市的大数据时代面临更多的发展机遇和艰巨的任务,必将为人类社会的进步和可持续发展作出更大的贡献。 Since the 1990 s,with the advent of worldwide information revolution and the development of internet,geospatial information science have also come of age,which pushed forward the building of digital Earth and cyber city.As we entered the 21 st century,with the development and integration of global information technology and industrialization,internet of things and cloud computing came into being,human society enters into the big data era.This article covers the key features(ubiquitous,multi-dimension and dynamics,internet+networking,full automation and real-time,from sensing to recognition,crowdsourcing and VGI,and serviceoriented)of geospatial information science in the big data era and addresses the key technical issues(non-linear four dimensional Earth reference frame system,space based enhanced GNSS,space-air and land unified network communication techniques,on board processing techniques for multi-sources image data,smart interface service techniques for space-borne information,space based resource scheduling and network security,design and developing of a payloads based multi-functional satellite platform).That needs to be resolved to provide a new definition of geospatial information science in big data era.Based on the discussion in this paper,the author finally proposes a new definition of geospatial information science(geomatics),i.e.Geomatics is a multiple discipline science and technology which,using a systematic approach,integrates all the means for spatio-temporal data acquisition,information extraction,networked management,knowledge discovering,spatial sensing and recognition,as well as intelligent location based services of any physical objects and human activities around the earth and its environment.Starting from this new definition,geospatial information science will get much more chances and find much more tasks in big data era for generation of smart earth and smart city.Our profession will make great contribution to human sustainable development!
作者 李德仁 LI Deren( 1. State Key Laboratory of Information Engineering in Surveying, Mapping and Remote Sensing, Wuhan University, Wuhan 4300?9, China, 2. Collaborative Innovation Center of Geospatial Technology, Wuhan 4300?9, China)
出处 《测绘学报》 EI CSCD 北大核心 2016年第4期379-384,共6页 Acta Geodaetica et Cartographica Sinica
关键词 大数据 地球空间信息学 云计算 物联网 空间感知与认知 智慧地球 big data geospatial information science cloud computing internet of things spatial sensing and recognition smart earth
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