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天然草地管理措施对植物病害的影响研究进展 预览

Progress of research into the effects of native grassland management practices on plant disease
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摘要 放牧、围封、刈割和焚烧是天然草地管理的最主要方式,植物病害是草地生产力的主要限制因素之一,综合考虑生态和经济效益,探讨利用方式对天然草地植物病害的影响,进而采取合理的管理措施,有效降低草地病害危害、提高草地生产力和生态服务功能。分析了放牧、围封和焚烧等草原管理措施对植物病害的影响。放牧对草地植物病害的发生有双重影响,对多数病害而言,放牧可清除草地植被中的病株,减少初侵染源而降低植物病害的发生;但对物理传播的病害,放牧通过家畜传播病原侵染植物,导致病害大面积发生。刈割阻止真菌的进一步侵入与定殖,从而减少草地病害的发生机会;另一方面,刈割形成有利于病原真菌孢子传播的条件,病原真菌通过刈割工具传播到刈割造成的叶片伤口上,为侵入植物体内提供了方便。草地围封增加了植物物种的多度同时降低植物多样性,有利于病害发生。冬末春初植被返青前,焚烧草地可清除枯枝落叶,减少越冬的病原物,降低病害的发生。同时对该领域的研究进行了展望,对今后研究提出了建议。 Grazing, fencing, mowing and burning are the most frequently measures in native grassland management. Grassland plant disease is one of the main limiting factors of grassland productivity. Considering the ecological and economic benefits, analyze the effects of grassland use methods on native grassland plant disease, and then take reasonable management practices, to effectively reduce the loss caused by grassland plant diseases, therefore improve grassland productivity and function of ecological service. This paper reviews the research progress in China and abroad by 2014 on the livestock grazing, fencing, mowing and burning on the diseases of native grassland plants. Grazing has dual influence on the occurrence of grassland plant disease. It removed diseased plant by food intake, reduced the original source of infection and decreased the happen of most plant disease, but it spread plant pathogens by food intake as well and caused the epidemic of physical transported plant disease. Fencing increased plant disease occurrence by increasing plant species abundance and reducing plant diversities. Mowing can prevent further invasion and colonization of fungi, thereby reducing the occurrence of grassland diseases. However, mowing can also produce conditions conducive to the spread of pathogen spores, and pathogenic fungi can spread from cutting tool blades to the wounds created by mowing; these conditions also favor invasive plants. Burning in winter and early spring could remove litters and reduce over winter pathogens, therefore decrease the incidence of plant disease. Suggestions and prospects for study of grassland plant disease management were developed for future research.
作者 刘勇 张雅雯 南志标 段廷玉 LIU Yong, ZHANG Yawen, NAN Zhibiao , DUAN Tingyu( State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystems, College of Pastoral Agricultural Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730020, China)
出处 《生态学报》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2016年第14期4211-4220,共10页 Acta Ecologica Sinica
关键词 利用方式 天然草地 病害 utilization methods native grassland disease
作者简介 通讯作者Corresponding author.E-mail:zhibiao@lzu.edu.cn
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