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水耕人为土长期改旱后土壤类型演变的探讨

Evolution of Soil Types after Long-term Land-use Conversion from Paddy Fields into Dryland
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摘要 由于城市的扩展和农业产业结构的调整,中国已有大面积的水耕人为土利用方式由水田永久性地转变为其他农业用地,相应地土壤发生学性状和土壤分类地位也随之发生变化。通过对中国长江三角洲和东南丘陵地区61对水耕人为土及其相应的返旱后形成的土壤进行观察与采样分析,系统地研究了水耕人为土返旱后土壤发生学特征的变化特点,探讨了水耕人为土返旱后土壤类型演变及分类归属。结果表明:水田长期改旱地后土壤失去了“人为滞水水分状况”,土壤水分状况转变为潮湿土壤水分状况、滞水土壤水分状况或湿润土壤水分状况;水耕表层与水耕氧化还原层的特征发生退化。改旱后检索出的土壤类型涉及3个土纲、4个亚纲、9个土类和14个亚类,主要为雏形土(占87%),其次为淋溶土(占10%),少数为潜育土(占3%)。由水田长期改旱地后形成的部分土壤与现有的《中国土壤系统分类》检索确定的类型在形态特征上存在明显的不协调现象,为此,初步建议在《中国土壤系统分类》中增设“残余水耕现象”和“残余水耕氧化还原层”等诊断层/诊断特性与“斑纹铁质湿润雏形土”及“斑纹钙质湿润雏形土”等土壤类别。 With increase of urbanization and adjustment of agricultural production structure, a large amount of paddy field in China was transformed permanently into other agricultural land. The change of landuse altered significantly the physical-chemical properties of the stagnic anthrosols, and thus caused the changes in soil classification. Sixty-one pairs of soil profiles including both long-term paddy fields and dryland transformed from paddy fields with more than 10 years were collected from the Yangtze River Delta and the hilly region of the southeastern China. The landuse transformation-induced changes in anthrostagnic epipedon, hydragric horizon and other soil genetic properties of the soils during the transforming process from paddy field to dryland were characterized. Evolution of soil types after long-term land-use conversion from paddy fields into dryland was also discussed. Evolution and classification of the stagnic anthrosols after landuse change from paddy field to dryland was also discussed on the basis of diagnostic horizons and diagnostic characteristics. The results showed that long-term transformation of land use from paddy to dryland changed significantly the soil moisture status with losing their "anthrostagnic soil moisture regime". Soil moisture became aquic soil moisture regime or stagnic soil moisture regime in the plain area, and udic soil moisture regime in hilly areas. The transformation also resulted in significant alteration of several genegic characters for the soils. Diagnostic characteristics of anthrostagnic epipedon and hydragric horizon were gradually degraded. After the transformation of land use from paddy to dryland, stagnic anthrosols in the Yangtze River Delta and hilly area of the southern China were developed toward cambosols, argosols and gleyosols. The soil types formed from the transformation involved a total of 3 soil orders, 4 suborders, 9 soil groups and 14 subgroups in Chinese Soil Taxonomy. The identified soil types mainly belonged to cambisols (87%), argosols �
作者 姚玉才 邱志腾 陈小梅 章明奎 YAO Yu-cai, QIU Zhi-teng, CHEN Xiao-mei, ZHANG Ming-kui (College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China)
出处 《土壤通报》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2016年第5期1029-1035,共7页 Chinese Journal of Soil Science
基金 国家自然科学基金项目(41571207,41071145)和国家科技基础性工作专项项目(2014FY110200A11)资助
关键词 水耕人为土 返旱 氧化还原特征 诊断分类 土壤发生 Stagnic anthrosols Transformation from paddy field to dryland Redox feature Diagnostic classification Soil genesis
作者简介 姚玉才(1993-),男,河南商丘人,硕士研究生,主要从事土壤资源调查与分类方面的研究。E-mail:1689431041@qq.com 通讯作者:E-mail:mkzhang@zju.edu.cn
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