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耕作及秸秆还田对辽南地区土壤水分及春玉米水分利用效率的影响 预览 被引量:5

Effect of Tillage and Straw Application on Soil Water and Water Use Efficiency of Spring Maize in Southern Area of Liaoning Province
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摘要 为探讨辽南地区雨养春玉米种植适宜的土壤耕作与秸秆还田模式,于2011-2014年进行了为期4年的田间小区试验,研究了3种耕作措施(普通旋耕20cm、隔年深松和隔年深翻30cm)与3种秸秆还田方式(无秸秆还田、秸秆隔年还田和秸秆连年还田)相结合,连续进行4年后对土壤水分特征及春玉米水分利用效率的影响。结果表明:不同处理对土壤蓄水能力和水分利用效率的提高作用,总体上以秸秆连年还田〉秸秆隔年还田〉无秸秆还田,深翻〉深松〉普通旋耕,且深翻与秸秆连年还田相结合效果显著。与普通旋耕无秸秆还田处理(P)相比,深翻+秸秆连年还田处理(SMSR2)显著地促进了土壤蓄水能力和水分利用效率的提高,0-60cm土层土壤含水量提高5.93%;0-100cm土层土壤贮水量提高31.69%;玉米拔节期叶片水分利用效率提高45.27%,抽雄开花期提高44.16%;SMSR2处理与其他处理相比,显著降低了玉米生育期土壤耗水量,水分利用效率显著提高。深松+秸秆连年还田处理(SSR2)也可明显改善土壤的蓄水能力和水分利用效率,但其效果稍逊于SMSR2处理。因此,秸秆连年还田结合隔年深耕能有效改善土壤蓄水保墒能力,是适合辽南地区雨养条件下春玉米种植的一种科学耕作和培肥方式,当地可根据实际情况加以应用。 In order to make certain the appropriate pattern of tillage and straw returning to soil in rain-fed agricultural region in the south of Liaoning Province, a 4-year field experiment has been conducted through a combination of different tillage ways and straw managements from 2011 to 2014. The effects of tillage and straw returning on soil water characteristic and water use efficiency were studied in 2014. The results showed that these treatments could improve soil water-holding capacity and spring maize water use efficiency, especially straw returning every year was better than that once every two years, deep tillage method was better than subsoil. Furthermore, the pattern of combination of deep tillage ways and straw returning every year(SMSR2) was the best one. Compared with the treatment of rotary tillage without straw returning(P), soil mass water content has increased by 5.93% in 0-60 cm soil layer and soil water storage has increased by 31.69% in 0-100 cm layer in SMSR2, The leaf water use efficiency has improved 45.27% at jointing stage and 44.16% at booting flower stage in SMSR2. Under the treatment of SMSR2, soil water consumption at growth period significantly decreased, water use efficiency significantly increased compared with the treatment of P. In conclusion, the pattern of combination of deep tillage and straw returning every year was a scientific and effective way for plant spring maize planting and soil fertility improvement.
作者 战秀梅 宋涛 冯小杰 王雪鑫 徐晓楠 刘小虎 韩晓日 ZHAN Xiu-mei1, SONG Tao2, FENG Xiao-jie1,WANG Xue-xin1, XU Xiao-nan1, LIU Xiao-hu1, HAN Xiao-ri1(1.CoUege of Land and Environment, Shenyang Agricultural University,Shenyang 110161, China;2.Hekou Agricultural Bureau of Dongying city Shandong Province, Dongying Shandong, 257200, China)
出处 《沈阳农业大学学报》 CSCD 北大核心 2017年第6期666-672,共7页 Journal of Shenyang Agricultural University
基金 国家科技支撑计划项目(2015BAD23B05,2013BAD07B03)
关键词 耕作 秸秆还田 土壤水分 水分利用效率 春玉米 tillage straw returning soil water water use efficiency spring maize
作者简介 战秀梅(1974-),女,博士,副教授,从事植物营养与土壤肥力方面的研究,E-mail:xiuineizhan@163.com
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