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贵州草海湿地空心莲子草入侵迹地植物群落结构数量特征 预览

The Plant Community Structure and Quantitative Features after the Invasion of Alternanthera philoxeroides in Caohai Wetland of Guizhou Province
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摘要 草海湿地是中国西南地区极为重要的喀斯特高原高寒湿地生态系统,也是中国黑颈鹤(Grus nigricollis)等珍稀水鸟重要的越冬场所之一。空心莲子草(Alternanthera philoxeroides)已在草海环湖消涨区、航道、码头等地形成入侵趋势,造成湿地植物群落物种多样性降低、破坏湿地生态系统稳定,严重威胁草海湿地生态安全。本研究选择贵州草海湿地空心莲子草入侵迹地植物群落作为研究对象,采用标准样地调查法分别在草海湿地上游、中游、下游设置轻度、中度、重度调查样点,对空心莲子草入侵迹地植物群落组成种类、种群密度、重要值等数量特征进行分析,提出空心莲子草清除后湿地植物群落培育方向,为草海湿地入侵植物迹地修复提供参考。研究结果表明,(1)草海湿地空心莲子草入侵迹地植物群落包括9个科,15种植物,其中禾本科(Gramineae)植物4种,莎草科(Cyperaceae)植物3种,蓼科(Polygonaceae)植物2种,菊科(Asteraceae)、苋科(Amaranthaceae)、香蒲(Typhaceae)、睡菜科(Menyanthaceae)、唇形科(Labiatae)、木贼科(Equisetaceae)植物各1种。(2)草海湿地上游入侵迹地植物群落总密度随入侵程度增加呈升高趋势,而草海湿地中游和下游入侵迹地植物群落密度随入侵程度增加呈降低趋势。(3)空心莲子草入侵迹地次优种、伴生种均以禾本科的李氏禾(Leersi ahexandra)、茭白(Zizania latifolia),莎草科的水葱(Scirpus validus)、荆三棱(Scirpus fluviatilis)为主。空心莲子草清除后的植物群落培育应以李氏禾、水葱、荆三棱、茭白为主要建群种。 As an important karst alpine wetland ecosystem in southwestern China, the Caohai wetland is one of the hibernacula of rare waterfowls, such as Grus nigricollis. However, Alternanthera philoxeroides in the Caohai wetland, has formed an invasion trend in the water fluctuation belt, waterway and wharf, resulting in the decrease of plant species diversity, the destruction of wetland ecosystem stability and the serious threat to the ecological safety in this area. This paper, based on the standard plot method, taking the plant community in Caohai wetland of Guizhou after the invasion of Alternanthera philoxeroides as the research object, by selecting the mild, moderate and severe sample plots according to the invasion of different extents in the upper, middle and lower reaches respectively, analyzed the plant community composition, population density, important value and other quantitative characteristics in the investigated spots, presented the cultivation direction of plant community after removing the Alternanthera philoxeroides, which would provide reference for the restoration of plant invasion area in Caohai wetland. The results showed that:(1) In the Alternanthera philoxeroides invasion area, the plant community was composed of 9 families with 15 species, including 4 species of Gramineae plants, 3 species of Cyperaceae plants, 2 species of Polygonaceae plants, Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae, Typhaceae, Menyanthaceae, Labiatae, Equisetaceae plants were 1, respectively.(2) The total density of plant communities in the upper reaches of the wetland was proportional to the degree of invasion, while it was inversely proportional in the middle or lower reaches of the wetland. And(3) the suboptimal and companion species were mainly Leersi ahexandra, Zizania latifolia of Gramineae, Scirpus validus and Scirpus fluviatilis of Cyperaceae in the Alternanthera philoxeroides invasion area. It should give priority to cultivating the plants of Leersi ahexandra, Zizania latifolia, Scirpus validus and Scirpus fluviatilis
作者 张建利 蔡国俊 吴迪 李振吉 王加国 易武英 涂声蕾 陶红梅 ZHANG Jianli1, CAI Guojun1, WU Di1, LI Zhenji2, WANG Jiaguo1, YI Wuying1, TU Shenglei2, TAO Hongmei2( 1. Institute of Mountain Resources of Guizhou Province, Guiyang 550001, China; 2. Management Committee of Guizhou Caohai National Nature Reserve, Weining 553100, China)
出处 《生态环境学报》 CSCD 北大核心 2018年第5期827-833,共7页 Ecology and Environmnet
基金 贵州省科技重大专项(黔科合重大专项字[2016]3022-03号) 贵州省林业科研课题(黔林科合J字[2012]11号)
关键词 草海湿地 空心莲子草 入侵迹地 植物群落 Caohai Wetland Alternanthera Philoxeroides the invasion of land plant community
作者简介 张建利(1981年生),男,副研究员,博士,主要从事植物生态学与喀斯特退化森林生态系统恢复方向研究.E-mail:zhangjl-z@163.com
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