黑龙江地处中温带地区,农田秸秆量大,不同秸秆还田技术与耕作制度结合对土壤物理性质的影响尚不明确.通过2010-2017年连续8年的田间定位试验,研究免耕条件下秸秆覆盖对草甸土土壤物理性质的影响.试验设秸秆无覆盖区（0%）、30%覆盖量（30%）、60%覆盖量（60%）、100%覆盖量（100%）4个处理.结果表明：免耕条件下,秸秆覆盖可使土壤容重增加0.10-0.20 g·cm^-3,差异达到显著水平,并随覆盖量增加呈递增趋势;秸秆覆盖使土壤固相率比无覆盖增加2.5%-7.8%;土壤温度随秸秆覆盖量增加降幅增大,表层尤为明显,0-5cm土层温度降幅1.87-2.90℃;土壤含水量随秸秆覆盖量增加呈增加趋势,与无覆盖相比差异显著,0-5 cm土层增加幅度为6.4%-10.2%;秸秆覆盖使土壤总孔隙和直径〉0.05 mm通气孔隙减少,0.05-0.002 mm有效孔隙增加,覆盖量越大增加越明显,对土壤无效孔隙的影响不规律.长期秸秆覆盖增加了土壤紧实度和土壤水分,降低了土壤温度和土壤总孔隙,增加了0-5 cm土层土壤有效孔隙.
The effects of different straw returning technology and farming system on soil physical properties is not clear in Heilongjiang Province, which is located in middle temperature zone with large amount of straw. Here, the effects of straw mulching on soil physical properties in meadow soil under no tillage conditions were studied in field experiments for eight consecutive years（2010-2017）. The no straw covering（0%）, 30% coverage（30%）, 60% coverage（60%） and 100% coverage（100%） were disposed in the experiment. The results showed that straw mulching under no tillage significantly increased soil bulk density by 0.10-0.20 g·cm^-3, which increased with theincreases of coverage amount. Straw mulching increased soil solid fraction by 2.5%-7.8%. Soil temperature decreased with the increases of coverage amount, and this trend was more apparent on the surface of soil. The temperature reduction in 0-5 cm soil layer was 1.87-2.90 ℃. Soil water content significantly increased with the increases of straw mulching, with an enhancement of 6.4%-10.2%.Straw mulch decreased the total porosity and diameter of 〉0.05 mm aeration pores, increased the effective pore size of 0.05-0.002 mm, with the magnitude of such effects being positively dependent on coverage amount. There was no significant effect of straw mulching on inactive porosity of soil. Long-term straw mulching increased soil compaction and soil moisture, reduced soil temperature and total soil porosity, and increased soil available porosity in 0-5 cm soil layer.
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology
soil physical properties
soil solid phase