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连年秸秆与生物炭还田对盐碱土理化性状及水稻产量的影响 预览 被引量:4

Effects of Successive Straw and Biochar Residue Incorporation on Physical and Chemical Characters of Saline Alkali Soil and Rice Yield
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摘要 [目的]为了农业可持续发展推进秸秆综合利用及改良盐碱土,研究了连年秸秆与生物炭还田对盐碱土理化性状及水稻产量的影响,并对两种还田方式应用效果进行了比较。[方法]试验在盆栽条件下,采用单因素完全随机设计,设置空白及常规施肥对照(CKO和CK),分别以7500、16 500 kg/hm~2(49.5、108.9 g/盆)不同量的生物炭与秸秆还田,每一处理连年进行相同量、相同物质还田。[结果]连续4年秸秆还田均显著或极显著降低了土壤的容重,且还田量越大降低幅度越大;生物炭还田差异均不显著;土壤孔隙度变化规律与容重相反。各处理均不同程度的降低了盐碱土pH,且还田量108.9 g/盆均显著低于49.5 g/盆,秸秆还田极显著低于相同量的生物炭还田。生物炭还田土壤全盐量均与CK接近,秸秆1、秸秆2还田量与CK相比全盐含量分别降低了31.6%和10.8%。连年秸秆还田均极显著提高了土壤碱解氮,但生物炭还田有所降低;各处理均显著或极显著提高了土壤有效磷和速效钾,且以秸秆还田提高的幅度更大;各处理均提高了土壤有机质,生物炭和秸秆均达到极显著水平,秸秆还田量与CK相比分别提高9.6%和7.8%。[结论]2种物质还田均以生物炭2、秸秆2处理的产量极显著高于CK,且以秸秆还田高于对应量生物炭还田;秸秆还田的穗数高于对应量生物炭还田;各处理的穗粒数均显著高于CK,相同还田量时以生物炭还田的穗粒数、结实率高于秸秆还田;各处理千粒重均高于CK。连年生物炭和秸秆还田主要通过显著降低盐碱土容重和pH,提高土壤氮磷钾含量和孔隙度导致每穴穗数和穗粒数增加从而实现了增产。相同还田量时,以秸秆还田氮磷钾的农学利用率和偏生产力提高幅度大于生物炭还田,与CK相比增幅均表现为钾肥〉磷肥〉氮肥。 [ Objective ] In order to promote the sustainable development of agriculture in the comprehensive utilization ofstraw and saline soil, the effect of successive straw and biochar returning on physicochemical properties of saline alkali soil andyield of rice together with the comparison of two kinds of field application effects were studied. [ Method ] Under the conditionof pot, using single factor completely randomized design, blank control and conventional fertilization ( CKO and CK), the bio-char and straw of different quantity with 7500, 16 500 kg/hm2 (49.5, 108.9 g/basin) returned, and the same material with same amount each year returning. [ Result ] The straw residueincorporation had significantly or extremely significantly decrease soil bulk density which decrease with the increase of the amount of returning field ; The difference of bio-char incorporation was not significant; The change law of soil porosity was different from that of bulk density. All treatments reduced the saline soil pH in different degrees, the amount of 108.9 g/basin were significantly lower than that of 49.5 g/basin, the two returning amount of straw reached the remarkable level, and the straw returning farmland was extremely lower than that of the same amount of biochar returning to field. The total salt content of biochar returned to soil was close to that of CK, and the total salt content of straw 1 and straw 2 decreased by 31.6 % and 10.8 %, respectively, compared with that of CK. Straw returning significantly increased soil nitrogen but also reduced the biochar field ; The treatments significantly increased soil available phosphorus and available potassium, and the straw increased more ; All treatments increased soil organic matter, biochar and straw were extremely significant, and two kinds of straw re- turning amount compared with CK increased by 9.6 % and 7.8 %, respectively. [ Conclusion] The yield of biochar 2 and straw 2 treatments with both substances returning were extremely significantly higher than that of CK, a
作者 赵海成 郑桂萍 靳明峰 陈亚桐 牛同旭 陈立强 赫臣 李红宇 吕艳东 付志强 ZHAO Hai-cheng1 , ZHENG Gui-ping1 , JIN Ming-feng2 , CHEN Ya-tong1 , NIU Tong-xu1 , CHEN Li-qiang1 , HE Chen1 , LI Hong-yu1, LV Yan-dong1 , FU Zhi-qiang1 (1. College of Agronomy, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University/Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics, Breeding and Cultivation, Hei longjiang Provincial Department of Education, Heilongjiang Daqing 163319, China; 2. Heilongjiang Nongken Qiqihar Management Bureau Yian Farm,Heilongjiang Qiqihar 161502, China)
出处 《西南农业学报》 CSCD 北大核心 2018年第9期1836-1844,共9页 Southwest China Journal of Agricultural Sciences
基金 国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0300104,2017YF D0300502-6,2017YFD0100506,) 黑龙江省农垦总局科技攻关项目(HNK125B-08-21A,HNK135-02-02,HNK125 B-07-08) “十三五”科技重点专项“粮食丰产增效科技创新”项目“东北北部春玉米、粳稻水热优化配置丰产增效关键技术研究与模式构建”(2017YFD0300502-6) 国家公益性行业(农业)科研专项(201303007)
关键词 盐碱土 水稻 秸秆 生物炭 理化性状 产量 Saline alkali soil Rice Straw Biochar Physical and chemical characters Yield
作者简介 赵海成(1992-),男,黑龙江方正人,在读硕士研究生,主要研究方向为水稻高产优质栽培和育种方面研究,Tel:18346662027,E-mail:1320549249@qq.com;通讯作者:郑桂萍(1960-),女,黑龙江密山人,教授,博士,主要从事水稻生理生态及品质改良研究,E-mail:514500662@qq.com。
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