目的探讨制鞋业不同岗位工作相关肌肉骨骼损伤（work-related musculoskeletal disorders,WMSDs）风险分析及相关工效学因素。方法应用快速上肢评估（RULA）法观察某制鞋企业生产过程,对作业人员手腕、手臂、颈部、躯干和腿部动作进行评分,汇总后得到最终评分结果,并根据最终评分评估其风险等级。结果在制鞋业生产过程中无Ⅰ级和Ⅳ级岗位,Ⅲ级岗位有大车、高头车等10个岗位,劳动者有429人,占总人数的30.1%,其余岗位都属于Ⅱ级。部位以上臂姿势得分最高（3.07分）,其次为手腕部（姿势＋旋转）（2.68分）,再其欠为颈部（2.26分）,腿部姿势得分最低（1.0分）,肌肉使用和负荷不明显。结论 RULA法可以评估出制鞋业生产过程存在中低等级的WMSDs发生风险的岗位,危险部位以上臂、手腕部和颈部为主,存在不良作业姿势、频繁重复性、长时间无支撑作业等工效学危险因素。10个中度风险的岗位需要进一步调查分析,采取相应的工效学改进措施。
Objective To analyse the risks of work-related musculoskeletal disorders（WMSDs） among the shoemaking workers and investigate their related ergonomic factors in different positions of a shoemaking factory. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed among the shoemaking workers by using a rapid upper limb assessment（RULA） method for the observation of their movements during the production process The scores on the movements of the workers at wrist,arm,neck,trunk and leg were summarized for getting a total rating score and thus used for a final rating of the risk level.Results There was no worker in any positions whose risk level was assessed as Level Ⅰ or Level Ⅳ in the whole shoemaking process The risk levels of workers in 10 positions, including large sewing machine and high head sewing machine, were assessed as Level Ⅲ And,there were 429 workers exposed in these workplaces with Level Ⅲ,accounting for 30.1% of the total population The workers from the rest of the positions were all assessed as Level Ⅱ Among all the body regions,the mean score of upper arm was the highest（3.07）,followed by the wrist（which was rated by both posture and rotation）（2.68）,and then neck（2.26）,the mean score of leg（1.0） was the lowest, there was no obvious muscle usage and muscle loads.Conclusions The RULA method can be used to evaluate the risks of working positions with low and moderate WMSD exposure in the shoemaking process The risk body regions were mainly the upper arm,wrist and neck There were ergonomic risk factors during the shoemaking process,such as awkward posture,frequent repetition,unsupported working posture for a long time,etc Further investigation and analysis of the 10 positions with moderate risk level is still needed,and the ergonomic improvement measures should be adopted accordingly.
Industrial Health and Occupational Diseases
Rapid Upper Limb Assessment
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders