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农业机械污染排放控制技术的现状与展望 预览 被引量:3

Progress of control technologies on exhaust emissions for agricultural machinery
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摘要 农业机械作为一种重要的非道路机械类型,其主要动力源为柴油机,而柴油机固有的燃烧方式会导致其颗粒物(PM)和氮氧化物(NOx)等污染物排放严重,开展农业机械污染排放控制技术的研究对人体健康和环境保护均具有重要意义。该文从农业机械排放法规、降低农业机械污染排放的单项技术路线、满足更高排放限值要求的组合技术路线3个方面进行阐述。农业机械排放法规分析了欧盟、美国和中国法规对排放限值和测试循环的要求以及各国法规的差异。中国目前正在实施的农业机械国III排放标准,与欧盟的Stage IV和美国Tier IV标准相比,排放限值相对宽松;欧盟农业机械排放法规的NRSC测试循环主要包括8工况循环和5工况循环,而中国和美国规定,19 kW以下的非恒定转速的农业机械柴油机也可使用6工况循环进行测试;欧盟和中国规定污染物测量的最终结果为冷启动循环结果的10%和热启动循环结果的90%的加权,而美国将冷启动循环结果的比例调低至5%。单项技术路线对油品技术、机内净化技术和机外排气后处理技术进行了介绍。其中,油品技术包括提升燃油和润滑油品质、采用替代燃料等;机内净化技术包括农业机械柴油机本体优化设计、增压及增压中冷、燃油喷射优化和废气再循环(exhaust gas recirculation,EGR)等;机外排气后处理技术包括柴油机氧化催化转化技术(diesel oxidation catalyst,DOC)、柴油机颗粒捕集技术(diesel particulate filter,DPF)和选择性催化还原技术(selective catalytic reduction,SCR)等。组合技术路线总结了满足国III和国IV阶段以及国外最新排放标准的技术路线。“优化燃烧+SCR”技术路线的柴油机比采用“EGR+DPF/CDPF”技术路线的柴油机节省5%~7%的油耗,若扣除尿素消耗,前者仍有一定节油优势;模块构建和单体式后处理� As an important type of non-road machinery,agricultural machinery plays an important role in national economy.At present,the main power source of agricultural machinery is diesel engine.However,the inherent combustion mode of diesel engine leads to large amounts of pollutant emission such as particulate matter(PM)and nitrogen oxide(NOx),and PM and NOx can cause great damage to human health and ecological environment.Therefore,exhaust emission control technology research for agricultural machinery is of great significance.From 3 aspects,this paper elaborates agricultural machinery emission legislation,individual technical routes to reduce agricultural machinery emissions,and combined technical routes to meet more stringent emission limits.Agricultural machinery emissions legislation part analyzes regulations of the EU(European union),the United States and China on exhaust emission limits,test cycles requirements,and their differences.The current agricultural machinery emission legislation for agricultural machinery in China is Stage III.Compared with the standard of Stage IV implemented by the EU and the standard of Tier IV implemented by the United States,exhaust emission limits of China III are relatively relaxed.Legislation of the EU,the United States and China for agricultural machinery increases the non-road transient cycle(NRTC)from Stage IIIB,Tier IV and China IV,respectively.Unlike the EU,China and the United States stipulate that agricultural machinery diesel engines of non-constant speed below 19 kW can also be tested under the cycle of 6 working conditions.In EU and China,the final measuring results of exhaust emissions consist of 10%of the cold start and 90%of the hot start,while the United States reduced the proportion of cold start test cycle results to 5%.Individual technical routes of agricultural machinery emission control mainly include oil technologies,engine purification technologies,and exhaust after-treatment technologies.Among them,oil technologies include improving the quality of fuel and l
出处 《农业工程学报》 CSCD 北大核心 2018年第7期1-14,共14页 Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering
基金 国家重点研发计划资助(2017YFC0211202)
关键词 农业机械 柴油机 排放控制 颗粒物 氮氧化物 agricultural machinery diesel engines emission control PM NOx
作者简介 谭丕强,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为柴油机污染排放控制技术等。Email:tpq2000@163.com
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