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1952-2011年埃及乡村人口流动的概况、成因、影响及对我国的启示 预览

The General Situation、Causes and Influences of Egyptian Villagers’Migration from 1952 to 2011 and Their Enlightenment to China
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摘要 从1952年七月革命成功爆发到2011年穆巴拉克黯然隐退,进城打工和出国务工构成埃及农业剩余劳力转移的主要途径。人口流出地的推动、劳力流入地的吸引、交通条件的优劣,是影响埃及村民流动的主要因素。对乡村而言,村民流动有利于村民规模经营和提高劳动生产率,但是可能造成乡村劳力匮乏甚至农业劳力匮乏,可能影响农地制度,有利于提高农业工资、提高村民收入水平进而为农业投资奠定物质基础,有利于乡村政治稳定,有利于打破乡村的闭塞状态。村民流动为流入地提供大量劳力。然而,进城村民失业率长期居高不下,进而造成城市社会贫富差距不断拉大,贫困的下层民众因缺乏必要的生活保障而普遍处于无助状态。出国务工者则难以享受同等待遇,并且其就业条件受到所在国乃至整个世界的政治经济环境影响。 From 1952 when“7·23”revolution broke out to 2011 when President Mubarak resigned,villagers’applying for jobs in the cities and working abroad were the main channels for transfer of superfluous agricultural labors.Push by population outflow places,pull from population-inflowing places,along with traffic conditions stand or fall,constituted foremost factors impacting villagers’migration.As far as the countryside is concerned,villagers’migration does good to villagers’management on a large scale and enhancement of labor productivity,but probably results in labor scarcity in the countryside even in agriculture,may affect farmland system,lends itself to raising agricultural wages、increasing villagers’revenues and laying a substantial foundation for agricultural invest,redounds to political stability in the countryside,and conduces to breaking villages’isolation.Villagers’migration provides numbers of labors.But the out-of-work rate for villagers applying jobs in the cities is quite high,so income disparities in the cities keep on enlarging,poorly off people are at large in helpless state because they lack indispensable life guarantee.It’s difficult for villagers working abroad to enjoy equal treatments,and their employment conditions are affected by political and economic environment of population-inflowing countries and even the world.
作者 刘志华 LIU Zhihua(College of Marxism Tianjin University,Tianjin 300350)
出处 《山东农业工程学院学报》 2019年第1期1-11,共11页 The Journal of Shandong Agricultural Engineering College
基金 2017年度天津市社科规划高校思想政治理论课专项项目“关于增强‘中国近现代史纲要’课政治性、学术性和生动性的方法研究”(项目编号:TJSZZX17-015)的阶段性成果。
关键词 埃及 村民流动 进城打工 出国务工 穆巴拉克 Egypt villagers’migration applying for jobs in the cities working abroad Mubarak
作者简介 刘志华(1983-),男,河南沁阳人,天津大学马克思主义学院副教授,硕士生导师,历史学博士,研究方向:近现代史与三农问题。
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