为了明确青海高原干旱地区最近几年引种的藜麦 Chenopodium quinoa Willd.上的害虫种类、发生规律、为害程度以及天敌资源种类,2014年—2017年我们对本地区藜麦田内的害虫及其天敌进行了系统的调查统计,分别将它们整理成害虫、天敌名录。截至目前,发现为害藜麦的昆虫36种,分属于5目15科,并未发现检疫性害虫,在藜麦田调查到天敌21种,分属于2纲7目12科,其中昆虫纲18种,蛛形纲3种。本文弄清了藜麦上的主要及次要害虫种类,研究了它们的为害特点及发生规律,明确了萹蓄齿胫叶甲 Gastrophysa polygoni Linnaeus、黄曲条跳甲 Phyllotreta vittuta Fabricius、横纹菜蝽 Eurydema gebleri Kolenati、菠菜潜叶蝇 Pegomya exilis Meigen及宽胫夜蛾 Melicleptria scutosa Schiffermüller等害虫的生物学特性与为害规律,分析了它们的可能重要来源途径。鉴于本地区高寒、高海拔、盐碱、干旱的特殊生境,结合生产实际提出了针对藜麦害虫的绿色安全防控措施。
In order to clear and definite the species, occurrence regularity, harm degree of the pests and species resource of natural enemies of pests on Chenopodium quinoa Willd. which were introduced into the arid area of Qinghai plateau in recent years, we systematically investigated the pest insects and their enemies in the fields from 2014 to 2017. All species of insect pests and their enemies were compiled into a checklist. Up to now, there were 36 species of insect pests in the region belonging to 15 families in 5 orders, and quarantine pests have not yet been found. Twenty-one enemies were collected, belonging to 2 class of Arthropod, 12 families in 7 orders. Among them, there were 18 species in Insecta, and 3 species in Arachnida. The species of the main and secondary insect pests were figured out, and the occurrence regularity was investigated. Characteristics, harming pattern and the important possible sources of these main pests were analyzed. In view of the special habitat conditions of high-cold, high altitude, salinity and drought, and combined with the actual production in the region, the green and safe strategies of prevention and control for the pests of quinoa were also put forward.