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干旱地区生态移民土地利用变化生态风险——以宁夏红寺堡区为例 预览

Ecological risk of ecological immigrants on land use change in arid areas-Hongsibu district of Ningxia as an example
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摘要 以全国最大的移民安置中心——红寺堡区为研究对象,基于1995、2000、2005、2010年和2015年五期遥感数据,采用RS和GIS技术,选取土地利用程度、耕地垦殖指数、景观多样性指数和景观破碎度等指数构建生态风险指数模型,并运用生态风险模型和空间分析方法对红寺堡区1995-2015年的土地利用变化及其生态风险的时空分布特征进行分析。结果显示:研究时段内草地面积下降明显,共减少29494hm2,耕地、林地、水域和建设用地面积呈上升趋势,其中建设用地面积增幅最大,而未利用地面积虽波动明显,但研究时段始末变化不大;1995-2015年研究区生态风险不断下降,生态风险指数由1995年0.3972下降至2015年的0.3235;红寺堡生态移民安置区各乡镇生态风险空间分布变化较大,不同类型区间均有转换,且不具有规律性,1995-2005年间以最高风险区和较高风险区为主,2005-2015年间以中等风险区和较低风险区为主。通过地理探测器对影响红寺堡生态移民安置区生态风险因子进行探测发现,林地、草地和植被覆盖度等指标因子对安置区生态风险具有较大影响,因此在通过扬黄灌溉工程和基本农田建设,增强农田生产能力,保障生态移民安置区经济发展和生态安全的同时,应注重安置区生态用地面积的增加与建设,以此来增加安置区植被覆盖度和降低其生态风险程度;生态保护、摆脱贫困和经济发展是生态移民的主要方向,因此红寺堡安置区在发展过程中在追求经济实力提升的同时,也要注重生态安全的保障,将生态安全放在全区发展的重要位置。 Based on five remote sensing datasets of 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015 and RS and GIS technologies, Hongsibu district, the largest resettlement center in the nation, was selected as the research object. We used the land use, cultivation index, landscape diversity index, and landscape fragmentation and other indexes to construct an ecological risk index model, then, used the model and spatial analysis method to analyze the temporal and spatial distribution of land use change and its ecological risk in Hongsibu area from 1995 to 2015. The results showed that the area of grassland significantly decreased by 29 494 hm 2 during the study period. The land for farming, forestry, water, and construction increased. The construction use increased the most while the unused land fluctuated obviously. From 1995 to 2015, the ecological risk in the study area continued to decline and the ecological risk index decreased from 0.3972 in 1995 to 0.3235 in 2015. The spatial distribution of ecological risk in townships in Hongsibu Ecological Resettlement District varied greatly. However, there was no regularity. These mainly happened between the high risk areas during 1995-2005, and the moderate risk areas and the slight risk areas during 2005-2015. Through the exploration of the ecological risk factors affecting the ecological resettlement area of Hongsibu County by geographical probes, it was found that the index factors such as forestland, grassland, and vegetation coverage had significant impact on the ecological risk in the resettlement area. Therefore, through the Yellow River irrigation project and the construction of basic farmland to increase farmland productivity and ensure the economic development and ecological security of the resettlement areas, attention should be paid to the increase and construction of ecological land area in the resettlement region so it could decrease the vegetation coverage and ecological risk in the resettlement areas. The protecting ecosystem, avoiding poverty, and developing economy are the ma
作者 王鹏 王亚娟 刘小鹏 陈晓 孔福星 WANG Peng;WANG Ya-juan;LIU Xiao-peng;CHEN Xiao;KONG Fu-xing(College of Resources and Environment,Ningxia University,Yinchuan, Ningxia 750021,China;Key Laboratory (China-Arab) of Resource Evaluation and Environmental Regulation of Arid Region in Ningxia, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750021,China)
出处 《干旱地区农业研究》 CSCD 北大核心 2019年第1期58-65,共8页 Agricultural Research in the Arid Areas
基金 国家自然科学基金项目(41461039).
关键词 干旱地区 生态移民安置区 土地利用变化 生态风险 红寺堡区 arid areas ecological resettlement area land use change ecological risk hongsibu district
作者简介 王鹏(1993-),男,内蒙古阿拉善人,硕士,研究方向为生态经济与生态评估。E-mail:775767923@qq.com;通信作者:王亚娟(1978-),女,陕西武功人,博士,教授,主要研究方向为生态风险与环境评价。E-mail: wangyj@nxu.edu.cn
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