Centered on the continuous development demand for autonomous capability, 70 years of airborne missile development history is reviewed, and the goal of development is unswervingly devoted to air superiority combat. There are four main lines of the airborne missile development: from rear-aspect to all-aspect attack, from short-range combat to medium or long range intercept, from fixed to off-boresight launching, from simple to complex combat environment. The airborne missile had gone through two technological evolutions caused by precision guidance technology and information technology. The third technological evolution might be artificial intelligence technology. The relationship between the autonomy and intelligence is systematically demonstrated. It is analyzed that the aim of developing intelligence technology is for realization of autonomy. The application prospect of artificial intelligence technology in airborne weapon fields and the possible scenario of “terminator dilemma” are also discussed in detail. Finally, a definition of the level of airborne missile autonomy is proposed, and key technologies for improving the autonomy capability is discussed.