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华北某市大气PM2.5污染状况及对居民死亡的影响

Impact of atmospheric PM2.5 pollution on daily deaths of residents in a city of North China
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摘要 目的了解华北某市不同季节PM2.5污染特征及其对居民日死亡数的影响。方法于2013年11月至2016年5月,每月10—16日采集该市中心城区大气PM2.5样本,分析样本中的12种金属元素(Pb、Mn、Al、Cd、Cr、Sb、As、Be、Hg、Ni、Se、Ti)、4种无机水溶性离子(NO3^-、SO4^2-、NH4^+、Cl^-)和16种多环芳烃(PAHs)含量;收集2013—2015年该市市区大气PM2.5日均浓度和居民每日非意外死亡数据,利用广义相加模型分析PM2.5日均浓度与居民死亡的关系。结果该市PM2.5浓度季节变化明显,冬季最高,为(223.87±176.13)μg/m^3,春、秋季次之,分别为(137.81±83.26)、(135.41±89.42)μg/m^3,夏季最低,为(112.88±50.46)μg/m^3,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01)。PM2.5中无机水溶性离子质量占比最高,约为41%~49%,SO42-平均浓度最高(34.60μg/m^3)。金属成分占比为0.19%~0.51%,Al平均质量浓度最高(546.03 ng/m^3)。PAHs占比为0.04%~0.23%,其中苯并[g,h,i]苝平均质量浓度最高(190.86 ng/m^3)。时间序列分析结果表明,大气PM2.5浓度每升高10μg/m^3,居民非意外死亡(lag0~5)、循环系统疾病死亡(lag0~5)和呼吸系统疾病死亡(lag1)的风险分别增加0.73%(95%CI:0.42%~1.04%)、1.04%(95%CI:0.64%~1.46%)和0.63%(95%CI:0.07%~1.19%)。结论该市大气PM2.5中无机水溶性离子SO42-和NO3-的占比较高,PM2.5浓度的升高可能导致非意外死亡,尤其是循环系统疾病死亡病例的增加。 Objective To study the characteristics of ambient PM2.5 pollution in different seasons and its impact on the daily deaths of residents in a city of North China.Methods Ambient PM2.5 samples were collected in the central urban area of the city from November 2013 to May 2016.Concentrations of twelve metals(Pb,Mn,Al,Cd,Cr,Sb,As,Be,Hg,Ni,Se,Ti),four inorganic water-soluble ions(NO3^-,SO4^2-,NH4^+,Cl^-),and sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs)were analyzed.Data of average daily concentration of PM2.5 in the atmosphere and daily non-accidental deaths of residents in the city were collected from 2013 to 2015.Generalized additive model(GAM)was used to analyze the relationship between average daily concentration of PM2.5 and the deaths of residents.Results Obvious seasonal changes were observed in the PM2.5 concentration,the highest of which was[(223.87±176.13)μg/m^3]in winter,followed by(137.81±83.26)μg/m^3 in spring and(135.41±89.42)μg/m^3 in autumn,and the lowest was(112.88±50.46)μg/m^3 in summer(P<0.01).The concentration of inorganic water-soluble ions in PM2.5 accounted for the largest proportion(41%-49%),of which the average SO42-concentration(34.60μg/m^3)was the highest.The metals accounted for 0.19%-0.51%,of which the Al concentration(546.03 ng/m^3)was the highest.The PAHs accounted for 0.04%-0.23%,of which the benzo(g,h,i)perylene concentration(190.86 ng/m^3)was the highest.Time series analysis showed that for every 10μg/m3 of increased PM2.5 concentration,the risks of total non-accidental deaths(lag0-5),deaths from cardiovascular diseases(lag0-5)and deaths from respiratory diseases(lag1)rose by 0.73%(95%CI:0.42%-1.04%),1.04%(95%CI:0.64%-1.46%)and 0.63%(95%CI:0.07%-1.19%),respectively.Conclusion The proportion of inorganic water-soluble ions such as SO42-and NO3-in PM2.5 was relatively high in this city.The increase of ambient PM2.5 concentrations may significantly associate with increased risks of non-accidental deaths,particularly the deaths from cardiovascular diseases.
作者 冯建纯 张聪瑶 张珣 齐海亮 孙红梅 徐美丽 韩丽 王红 FENG Jian-chun;ZHANG Cong-yao;ZHANG Xun;QI Hai-liang;SUN Hong-mei;XU Mei-li;HAN Li;WANG Hong(Hebei Chest Hospital,Shijiazhuang 050011,China;Hebei Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention)
出处 《华南预防医学》 2019年第1期8-14,共7页 South China JOurnal of Preventive Medicine
关键词 颗粒物 空气污染 PM2.5 死亡 Particulate matter Air pollution PM2.5 Mortality
作者简介 冯建纯(1981-),男,硕士研究生,主管技师,从事环境对疾病影响的研究工作;通讯作者:王红,E-mail:68752145@qq.com.
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