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中国页岩油的形成和分布理论综述 预览

A REVIEW ON THE FORMATION AND DISTRIBUTION THEORIES OF THE SHALE OIL IN CHINA
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摘要 页岩油是指生成并滞留在烃源岩中,以游离或吸附状态赋存在地层微纳米级储集空间中,基本未运移或极短距离运移的低熟—半熟油气.通过总结泥页岩低孔低渗的特点,对页岩油的形成机制、演化条件、保存条件以及分布特征进行了讨论.泥页岩中有机质的丰度、类型以及演化成熟度是泥页岩生油能力的主要影响因素.生油能力较好的Ⅰ或Ⅱ型干酪根是良好的有机质类型,而Ⅲ型干酪根则以生气为主.在适当的埋藏深度下,达到生油门限,即可发生热化学反应产生大量液态烃.弱水动力条件以及相对长时间稳定的构造活动,都能使得有机质及沉积物缓慢沉降并演化.陆上优质泥页岩由于分布范围广、类型多、时代跨度大、陆相湖盆面积小、物源丰富且湖平面变化等原因,有利于页岩油气形成. Shale oil refers to the low mature-semimature oil and gas that is generated and retained in source rocks and occurs in micro-nano level reservoir space of strata in free or adsorbed state, with little or extremely short migrated distance. The paper summarizes the characteristics of low porosity and low permeability of argillutite, and discusses the formation mechanism, evolution, preservation conditions and distribution features of shale oil. The abundance, type and maturity of organic matter are the main factors affecting the oil-generating capacity. TypeⅠor Ⅱ kerogen with good oil-generating capacity is favorable organic matter, while type Ⅲ kerogen is gas-generating dominated. At the proper burial depth that reaches the oil generation threshold, thermochemical reaction will take place to produce large amounts of liquid hydrocarbon. Both the weak hydrodynamic condition and relatively long-term stable tectonic activities lead to the slow subsidence and evolution of organic matter and sediments. Fine argillutite on land contributes to the formation of shale oil and gas due to its wide distribution, various types, large time span, small area of lacustrine basin, abundant provenance and lake level changes.
作者 张欣 刘吉余 侯鹏飞 ZHANG Xin;LIU Ji-yu;HOU Peng-fei(School of Earth Sciences,Northeast Petroleum University,Daqing 163318,Heilongjiang Province,China)
出处 《地质与资源》 CAS 2019年第2期165-170,共6页 Geology and Resources
基金 国家自然科学基金“白云岩对陆相湖盆泥页岩层系储层物性和脆性的影响定量研究”(编号41672113).
关键词 页岩油 泥页岩 演化条件 保存条件 形成机制 shale oil argillutite evolution condition preservation condition formation mechanism
作者简介 张欣(1995-),女,硕士研究生,矿产普查与勘探专业,通信地址黑龙江省大庆市高新技术开发区发展路184号,E-mail//heinuwu@qq.com;通信作者:刘吉余(1961-),男,博士,教授,主要从事石油开发地质学的教学和科研工作,通信地址黑龙江省大庆市高新技术开发区发展路184号,E-mail//heinuwu@qq.com.
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