为降低运城苹果园土壤碱性并促使主要土壤养分指标达标,2018年3—10月进行了室内模拟降碱及田间验证效果试验.结果表明:①灌溉水pH由8.01降为7.00需加入其重量1‰的TG(重过磷酸钙)或0.4‰的TK(磷酸二氢钾).②在自然生草果园分别株施TG 3876 g、TK 1291 g 30~180 d可使土壤pH由8.41显著降至7.38及7.54,最低分别降至7.30及7.42.③室内理论降碱与田间实际降碱效果存在差异,实际TG、TK 6次pH均值分别比预期值7.00高0.38、0.54个pH单位.④精准降碱提肥配方T3(自然生草+TG 3876 g+硝酸铵磷217 g+EM菌有机肥6460 g)处理第180 d使土壤pH由8.41降至7.20,碱解氮及有机质含量达标准果园指标,全氮、速效钾、有效磷高于标准肥力指标.结论:运城土壤降碱肥料用重钙比磷酸二氢钾更有效、更对症、更经济;T3处理能促进运城果园土壤酸碱度及主要肥力达标。
In order to reduce the alkalinity of soil in Yuncheng apple orchard and make the main soil nutrient index to reach the standard,indoor simulation of alkali-lowering and field verification experiments were conducted between March and October in 2018. The results showed as follows.①The method of reducing the pH of irrigation water from 8.01 to 7.00 was intended to add TG(heavy superphosphate in the paper)or TK(monopotassium salt) for 1‰ and 0.4‰ of each weight.②The soil pH could be significantly reduced from 8.41 to 7.38 and 7.54,even 7.30 and 7.42 during the 30th-180th day by applying TG 3876 g and TK 1291 g respectively in natural grass orchards.③The difference between the indoor theoretical alkali reducting effect and that of field was clarified,the mean pH of 6 times results of TG was 0.38 pH unit higher than the expected value of 7.00 and TK was 0.54 pH unit higher than that.④On the 180th day,the pH of soil of treatment T3(natural grass + TG 3876 g + Ammonnium phosphor nitrate 217 g + EM organi fertilizer 6460 g)was reduced from 8.41 to 7.20,the content of alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen and organic matter reached the index of standard orchard,the total nitrogen,available potassium and available phosphorus were higher than the standard fertility index. In conclusion,heavy superphosphate was more effective,symptomatic and economical than monopotassium salt in reducing the soil sodicity of orchard in Yuncheng,and the treatment T3 could promote the soil pH and main fertility of Yuncheng orchard to the standard.
alkaline soil improvement