为了解胶州湾海域鱼类资源数量的时空分布特征,2016—2017年利用底拖网对胶州湾海域开展了4个航次的渔业资源调查。结果显示,胶州湾海域鱼类资源密度存在明显的季节变化。鱼类资源尾数密度以夏季最高(233 427 尾/km^2),春季最低(18 080 尾/km^2),秋季和冬季分别为32 246、40 746 尾/km^2;鱼类资源质量密度以冬季最高(1 593.16 kg/km^2),秋季最低(337.91 kg/km^2),春季和夏季分别为681.96和825.55 kg/km^2。其中,冬季鱼类平均个体质量最大(39.10 g),夏季最小(3.54 g),春季和秋季分别为37.72 g和10.48 g。与历史调查资料相比,30多年来胶州湾鱼类资源发生了较大变化。本次调查鱼类资源密度(1 593.16 kg/km^2)低于1981—1982年(10 857.00 kg/km^2)和2008—2009年(2 196.00 kg/km^2);鱼类平均个体质量为10.60 g,低于1981—1982年(37.70 g),鱼类群落结构明显呈现小型化和低质化趋势。这些变化可能主要是由于人类活动对鱼类栖息地的破坏和海洋生态环境恶化造成的。
In order to understand the tempo-spatial distributions of fish resources in Jiaozhou Bay, we conducted four surveys on the fishery resources in Jiaozhou Bay by the underlying single trawl in 2016 and 2017. The surveyed results showed that there existed obvious differences in the seasonal variations in the density of fish resources. Individual density of fish resources was the highest in summer (233 427 ind/km^2 ), followed by those in winter (40 746 ind/km^2 ) and autumn (32 246 ind/km^2 ), while that in spring was the lowest (18 080 ind/km^2 ). Mass density of fish resources in winter was the highest (1 593.16 kg/km^2 ), followed by those in summer (825.55 kg/km^2 ) and spring (681.96 kg/km^2 ), while that in autumn was the lowest (337.91 kg/km^2 ). Among them, the average weight of fish in winter was the highest (39.10 g), followed by those in spring (37.72 g) and autumn (10.48 g), while that in summer (3.54 g) was the lowest. Compared with the historically surveyed data, the fish resources in Jiaozhou Bay have shown a significant downward trend during the past 30 years. The fish resource density (1 593.16 kg/km^2 ) was lower than that in 1981-1982 (10 857.00 kg/km^2 ) and 2008-2009 (2 196.00 kg/km^2 );the average individual mass of fish was 10.60 g, which was lower than that in 1981-1982 (37.70 g). There existed a trend of miniaturization and low-quality in the structure of fish community in Jiaozhou Bay. These changes may have been mainly caused by destruction of fish habitat and the deterioration of the ecological environment of the sea due to human activities.
Journal of Fisheries of China