Dear editor, Ecological awareness and economical reasons call for a substantial reduction of the fuel consumption of all future automobiles. One of the most realistic short-term solutions to energy saving is represented by hybrid elec trie vehicles (HEVs). Those strategies that det ermine power dist ribution within the hybrid powertrain, as well as the gearshift schedule to enhance fuel economy are often referred as energy management systems (EMSs), such as rule-based methods [1,2] and optimizationbased methods [3-5]. In optimization-based methods, although numerous constraints exist, a truly optimal fuel consumption can be achieved when the entire driving cycle is known a priori.
SCIENCE CHINA:Information Sciences
National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61790564, 61520106008)
China Automobile Industry Innovation and Development Joint Fund (Grant No. U1664257)
Natural Science Foundation of Jilin Province (Grant No. 20190103047JH).