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抗战营养保障体系的建立与中国营养学的建制化

On the Establishment of Wartime Nutrition Guarantee System and the Institutionalization of Modern Nutrition Science in China During World War Ⅱ
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摘要 营养保障对于以持久性为主要特征的抗战极为重要。抗战期间,面对因缺少营养造成的前方士兵非战斗减员及后方国民病、亡等急迫问题,中国科学家从各自相关领域汇聚到一起,为建立起中国的抗战营养保障体系开展了卓有成效的工作。在这一过程中,上述科学家沿着各自不同的方向展开了广泛的应用和理论研究,并先后开始了制度化的教育和专业人才培养等工作。随着这些活动的进一步发展,他们的工作也开始逐渐相互关联,并最终交织在一起,使得战时中国营养保障体系的建设成为面向全局的整体事业,并促成了中国营养学共同体的形成。从中可见,中国的抗日战争催发了近代营养学研究和教育的兴起,而应用导向下的理论研究和人才培养体系的建立过程,则既是抗战这一特殊环境的体现,又形成了该学科在近代中国发展的特质。 Nutrition security was extremely important to the Chinese during the protracted War of Resistance against the Japanese Aggression. In the face of the urgent wartime problems such as the non-combat reduction of soldiers in the front and the death of rear-country nationals, both due to the lack of nutritional support, Chinese scientists from their respective fields gathered and carried out fruitful work in solving those problems. Against the wartime background, this article discusses the development of Chinese nutrition from practical application to theoretical research, as well as the complete institutionalization process from the training of specialized practitioners to the formation of a disciplinary community. It can be seen that the war brought about the rise of modern nutrition research and education in China. The application-oriented theoretical research and the establishment of the professional training system were the distinctive features of the institutionalization process of Chinese nutrition science that developed in the special environment of the War.
作者 王公 杨舰 WANG Gong;YANG Jian(Institute for the History of Natural Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190;Department of History of Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084)
出处 《自然辩证法通讯》 CSSCI 北大核心 2019年第8期62-70,共9页 Journal of Dialectics of Nature
关键词 抗日战争 营养保障体系 营养学 学科建制化 科技与社会 War of Resistance against the Japanese Aggression Nutrition Guarantee System Nutrition Science Discipline Institutionalization Science,Technology and Society
作者简介 王公(1984-)男,内蒙古呼伦贝尔人,中国科学院自然科学史研究所助理研究员,研究方向为中国近现代科技史。Email:wanggong@ihns.ac.cn;杨舰(1959-)男,湖南芷江人,清华大学人文学院科学史系教授,研究方向为中国近现代科技史、科学技术与社会等。Email:yangjian@tsinghua.edu.cn.
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