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快速城市化背景下珠江三角洲滨海湿地变化特征

Change Characteristics of Coastal Wetlands in the Pearl River Delta under Rapid Urbanization
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摘要 自20世纪80年代初以来,随着城市化与工业化的快速发展,珠江三角洲地区人口和产业活动集聚,引发了大规模的围填海活动,导致滨海湿地大面积减少,滨海水体污染、生物多样性丧失等生态环境问题突出。利用1980年的Landsat MSS影像和1995年、2010年和2015年的Landsat TM影像,获取4个时期珠江三角洲地区的土地利用信息,结合珠三角沿海城市开发政策,分析珠江三角洲滨海湿地的变化特征及其驱动因素;利用元胞自动机模型,预测该地区未来城市发展对滨海湿地的影响。研究结果表明,在滨海湿地变化最为剧烈的珠江口区,东、西两岸区域的开发模式和开发时间存在显著差异,东岸区域的开发始于1980年,土地开发利用方式以围垦养殖和工程建设为主;西岸区域开发始于1995年,土地开发利用方式以围垦养殖为主。围垦养殖、交通建设、产业发展、保护政策等人为因素是导致珠江三角洲滨海湿地变化的主要原因。在粤港澳大湾区建设背景下,自贸区、港珠澳大桥、深中通道建设等新一轮城市和区域开发活动,可能会导致珠江口西岸区域大面积滨海湿地和东岸区域部分滨海湿地丧失。 With the rapid process of urbanization and industrialization since the early 1980 s, population and industries have been aggregating in the Pearl River Delta. These human activities have resulted in large-scale sea reclamation that has caused extensive degradation of the coastal wetlands, water pollution, loss of biodiversity,and other environmental problems. In this study, we combined historical land use activities interpreted from satellite imagery(Landsat MSS in 1980 and Landsat TM in 1995, 2010, and 2015) and urban development policies in the coastal cities to analyze the change characteristics of the coastal wetlands and their driving factors in the Pearl River Delta. We then analyzed the potential impacts of future growth of construction land projected by cellular automata model. The results showed that the coastal zone of the Pearl River estuary was the area where the coastal wetlands have changed the most with a different pattern of temporal change on the east coast area than that was found on the west coast. The significant change of the coastal wetlands on the east coast area started in the early 1980 s, and they were mainly transformed into fishing ponds and urban infrastructure. In contrast, the fast change of the wetlands on the west coast area started in 1995, and they were mainly transformed into fishing ponds. Sea reclamation and aquaculture, transportation infrastructure, industrial development, and implementation of conservation policies were the main driving factors of the coastal wetlands change in the Pearl River Delta.The development of urban and regional development activities associated with the Guangdong-Hong KongMacao Greater Bay Area, such as the free-trade zones, the bridge connecting Hongkong, Zhuhai, and Macao,and the tunnel connecting Shenzhen and Zhongshan, might cause a significant loss of the coastal wetlands on the west coast area and some parts of the east coast area of the Pearl River estuary.
作者 李婧贤 王钧 杜依杭 蔡爱玲 LI Jingxian;WANG Jun;DU Yihang;CAI Ailing(Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School,Key Laboratory for Human and Environmental Science and Technology,PekingUniversity (Shenzhen) Future City Laboratory,School of Urban Planning and Design,Shenzhen 518055,Guangdong,P.R. China)
出处 《湿地科学》 CSCD 北大核心 2019年第3期267-276,共10页 Wetland Science
基金 国家科技计划项目(2017YFC0505801) 北京大学(深圳)未来城市实验室铁汉科研开放课题基金项目(201702) 深圳市生态观测研究站项目(SZCG2018161641)资助。
关键词 滨海湿地 珠江三角洲 城市化 珠江口 围垦 水产养殖 coastal wetlands the Pearl River Delta urbanization the Pearl River estuary reclamation aquaculture
作者简介 李婧贤(1993-),女,山西省临汾人,硕士研究生,从事生态规划与修复研究。E-mail:467804827@qq.com;通讯作者:王钧,研究员。E-mail:wangjun@pkusz.edu.cn.
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