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甜樱桃新种质种内及与中国樱桃种间杂交效率分析 预览

Analysis the efficiency of inter and intra-specific hybridization of new cultivars of sweet cherry and chinese cherry
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摘要 【目的】探索甜樱桃新种质种内及种间杂交育种规律,提高南方甜樱桃杂交育种效率。【方法】以适宜浙江省种植的甜樱桃新种质为母本,以甜樱桃和中国樱桃为父本开展甜樱桃种内及种间杂交试验,调查坐果率、有胚率、胚败育率和F0果实品质等指标,进行杂交效率分析。【结果】授粉7 d后,供试母本的种内及种间坐果率都比较高,随果实发育,至授粉后28 d及成熟期都有不同程度较大幅度的下降。同母本种内杂交坐果率高于种间的。供试母本中‘朝阳一号’的种内、种间杂交坐果率均最高;坐果率最低的为‘长丰一号’的种间杂交组合。同一母本种内组合比种间组合有胚率高、败育率低。杂种胚成熟时败育率高,仅有4个组合可以得到未败育胚。杂交果未成熟胚败育率低这为胚培养提供了可能。供试母本‘朝阳一号’未成熟胚最好,坐果率高有胚率高败育率低;‘江南红’有胚率低,败育程度最高;‘长丰一号’及‘先锋’居中,母本优选‘朝阳一号’;供试父本未成熟胚中‘朝阳一号’和‘紫晶’较好。F0果实成熟期推迟,颜色及形状均表现出了母本果实开放授粉的色泽及形状;可溶性固形物种含量间杂交果低于种内的,均低于开放授粉的母本果实。为获得杂交后代,南方甜樱桃杂交育种可以采用3种方法:利用主产区的杂交后代在南方进行筛选;在南方杂交后进行胚挽救或者尝试混合花粉的开放授粉。【结论】甜樱桃种新种质种内及种间组合不同坐果率、杂种胚发育均存在较大差异。同一母本种内杂交坐果率高且败育率低。供试种质中‘朝阳一号’是较好的父母本。 【Objective】To explore the rules of intra-specional and inters-pecific cross breeding of some new sweet cherry cultivars and improve the efficiency of cross breeding of sweet cherry in the area where winter is warm and summer is hot and moist.【Methods】The intraspecial and interspecifichybridization test of sweet cherry was carried out by using sweet cherry as the mother,using sweet cherry and chinese cherry as the father.The rate of fruit set,embryo,embryo abort of the cross and quality of the F0 fruit were investigated in order to analysis the efficiency of the cross.【Results】The four cultivars of sweet cherry‘Jiangnanhong’‘Chaoyang-1’‘Changfeng-1’and‘Van’were taken as the mother.Five sweet cherry cultivars or selections‘04-8’‘04-11’‘Chaoyang-1’‘Van’‘Lapins’and five cultivars of chinese cherry‘Chaozaohong’‘Duanbing’‘Gejiawu’‘Heizhenzhu’‘Zijing’were taken as the male parent.Among them‘Jiangnanhong’and‘Zijing’are newly identified cultivars in Zhejiang province,and‘Chaoyang-1’and‘Changfeng-1’are new selections.After pollination for 1 week,the fruit setting rate was relatively high and significant decrease in the 4 weeks and mature stages in intra and inter-species with the development of fruits.In the mature stage,all the fruit setting of the other cross of intra-species were higher than 5%,except that of‘Jiangnanhong’ב04-11’was 1.85%lower than 3%,and that of‘Changfeng-1’בLapins’was 4.35%lower than 5%,which indicates the basic affinity between the cross of intra-specific sweet cherry.The fruit setting rate of intraspecific cross was higher than that of interspecific cross.The fruit setting rate of‘Chaoyang-1’was the highest in both intraspecific and interspecific hybridization.The interspecific hybrid combination of‘Changfeng-1’had the lowest fruiting rate.The embryo rate and abortion rate of the intraspecific cross were higher than those of interspecific cross when the female parent is same.The abortion r
作者 吴延军 武凯翔 袁玥 董梦梦 WU Yanjun;WU Kaixiang;YUAN Yue;DONG Mengmeng(Institute of Horticulture,Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Hangzhou 310021,Zhejiang,China)
出处 《果树学报》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第9期1112-1120,共9页 Journal of Fruit Science
基金 浙江省农业新品种选育重大科技专项果品新品种选育(2016C02052-9) 第三次全国农作物种质资源普查与收集行动。
关键词 甜樱桃 中国樱桃 种内杂交 种间杂交 育种效率 Sweet cherry Chinese cherry Intra-specific hybridization Inter-specific hybridization Hybrid efficiency
作者简介 吴延军,副研究员,女,博士,主要从事樱桃研究。Tel:0571-86058831,E-mail:wyjwjht@163.com。
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