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巫山蓝家寨遗址中华鲟骨骼的发现及其意义

Discovery and significance of a Chinese Sturgeon(Acipenser sinensis)bone at Lanjiazhai Site,Chongqing,China
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摘要 蓝家寨遗址位于重庆市巫山县大昌镇兴胜村(31°15'95"N,109°48'23"E),自然地貌特征为长江三峡北岸大宁河中游的一级阶地。2012年,在对蓝家寨春秋时期(距今2489多年前)古文化遗址考古发掘中,出土了1件保存较好的中华鲟骨鳞板,该枚骨鳞板长64 mm,宽35 mm;骨板平面最大厚度5 mm,骨板尾端高度为16 mm。根据该标本生长形态和中华鲟骨鳞板排列规律,可以确定该标本为中华鲟背鳍前部的最后一块骨鳞板。中华鲟是鲟形目中在地球上分布最南端的种类,主要生活于亚洲东部沿海大陆架水域和中国长江干流,是起源于白垩纪(恐龙时代)残留至今最为古老的现生鱼种之一。中国长江三峡地区,是世界上唯一发现有中华鲟考古材料的地区。中华鲟体内骨骼以软骨为主,自然状态下很难在土壤中保存,并且其体内软骨自古被人们视为名馔珍肴,所以考古发掘中迄今没有发现中华鲟体内骨骼。中华鲟体表分布有5列骨质鳞板,由于鳞板形态近似,数目较多,并且骨鳞板埋在地层中极易破碎,所以此前考古发现的零散骨鳞板,均未能鉴定出其具体生长体位。本文报道的重庆巫山县蓝家寨遗址考古发掘中,出土了迄今保存最为完整的1件骨鳞板,也是我国考古工作中首次发现可以确认具体生长体位的中华鲟骨骼。三峡地区大巴山、巫山、武陵山巨岭交错,陡峡深谷,其特殊地理位置、地貌特征及特色资源,使该地区形成富有特色的各种经济文化交流圈。史前时期,该地有盐业经济圈、太阳崇拜文化圈等。蓝家寨遗址中华鲟标本及其相关研究,使我们认识到春秋时期(距今2489多年前),三峡地区长江干流沿岸生活有专门捕捞中华鲟的渔民,这些沿岸渔民以中华鲟等渔获物与周围山区古居民进行物质交流,至少在沿江两岸35 km的直线范围内,还存在有以中华鲟为重要交换物的经济文化交流圈。中华鲟生 Lanjiazhai Site,located at Xingsheng Village,Dachang Town,Wushan County of Chongqing,China,with coordinate of 31°15'95"N,109°48'23"E,distributed at the first terrace in the middle reaches of Daninghe River on the north bank of the Three Gorges of Yangtze River.In 2012 excavation of deposition of Spring-Autumn Period(over 2489 a B.P.)of Lanjiazhai Site,a well-preserved bony scale of Chinese Sturgeon(Acipenser sinensis)was unearthed,measured 64 mm in length,35 mm in width,5 mm in maximum thickness and 16 mm in height of its rear end.According to its shape and the developing pattern of Chinese Sturgeon,this specimen can be identified as the last boney scale from the front part of the dorsal fin of a Chinese Sturgeon.Chinese Sturgeon,a southernmost species of Acipenseriformes on Earth,also a most aged fish originated in the Cretaceous Period(the Dinosaur Age),mainly live in the coastal continental shelf water in East Asia and in the stem stream of Yangtze River.Actually Three Gorges is the only area in the world where Chinese Sturgeon materials can be discovered.Most inner skeleton of the Chinese Sturgeon is a cartilage one,treasured as a delicious food in ancient China and almost impossible to be preserved in the earth in natural world,and no remaining parts have been found until now in years of archaeological excavations.There are five rows of bony scales on the surface of a Chinese Sturgeon,which share similar shape and are easy to be damaged in the deposition.The exact developing positions of some loose bony scales unearthed in the past archaeological excavations have not been identified successfully.The bony scale gathered at Lanjiazhai site in this article is most complete one until now,also the one which anatomical part can be determined for the first time in Chinese archaeological work.In the Three Gorges area where Dabashan Mountains,Wushan Mountains and Wuling Mountains joined and formed deep valleys,some distinctive economic and cultural circles such as Salt Economy Circle and Solar Worship Circle had be
作者 常云平 武仙竹 Chang Yunping;Wu Xianzhu(College of History and Society,Chongqing Normal University,Chongqing 401331;Archaeometry and Cultural Relics Protection Technology Chongqing University Municipal Key Laboratory,Chongqing Normal University,Chongqing 401331;The Sino-Russia Archaeometry Institute,Chongqing 401331)
出处 《第四纪研究》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第6期1467-1475,共9页 Quaternary Sciences
基金 重庆市社会科学规划项目"长江三峡地区旧石器文化资源及价值研究"(批准号:2016YBLS102) 教育部人文社会科学研究青年基金项目"三峡地区古居民生业模式的考古学研究"(批准号:17XJC780002)共同资助。
关键词 三峡 蓝家寨遗址 春秋时期 中华鲟 骨板 the Three Gorges area Lanjiazhai Site Spring and Autumn period Chinese sturgeon boneplate
作者简介 第一作者:常云平,男,53岁,教授,从事文化遗产保护与历史文化研究,E-mail:the168@126.com;通讯作者:武仙竹,E-mail:1152682699@qq.com。
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