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不同有机肥对采煤塌陷区土壤氮素矿化动态特征研究

Dynamic Characteristics of Soil Nitrogen Mineralization in Mining Subsidence Area with Different Organic Fertilizers
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摘要 为揭示不同有机肥对煤矿复垦土壤氮素矿化特性的影响,以山西省孝义市水峪煤矿采煤塌陷复垦土壤为研究对象,采用室内好气培养法,研究在40%含水量和30℃培养条件下,施用3种有机肥(鸡粪、猪粪、牛粪)后在0~161天的氮素矿化动态特征,以明确不同有机肥对该矿区复垦土壤氮素矿化特征,从而预估不同有机肥的供氮特性,为合理施用有机肥进行低产农田的培肥改造提供科学依据。结果表明:(1)各处理0~14天铵态氮含量均随培养时间的延长迅速下降,与培养时间呈极显著负相关关系(P<0.01),14~161天土壤铵态氮含量维持在较低水平,培养结束时,各处理铵态氮含量均低于1.31mg/kg。(2)各处理土壤硝态氮含量、累积量及矿质氮累积量变化均呈近似的“S”形曲线递增,表现为0~56天缓慢增加,56~84天迅速增加,84天至培养结束(161天)其含量基本不变。培养结束时不同处理间硝态氮含量、累积量及矿质氮累积量整体上均表现为鸡粪>猪粪>牛粪>空白,且鸡粪较猪粪和牛粪处理间存在显著差异,猪粪和牛粪较空白处理间存在显著差异(P<0.05)。(3)不同施肥处理出现氮素净矿化的时间点不同,其中鸡粪处理在第14天时最早出现净矿化现象,而猪粪和牛粪在培养28天后才出现明显的氮素净矿化。(4)不同施肥处理在培养的不同阶段硝态氮和矿质氮累积速率不同,但整体趋势一致,表现为培养0~84天各处理土壤累积矿化波动较大,56~84天达到峰值,培养84~161天各处理矿化速率平稳下降。总体来看,有机肥的施入能有效促进煤矿复垦土壤氮素矿化,从而提高土壤氮素有效性。其中,施鸡粪较猪粪和牛粪对提高矿区复垦土壤有效氮效果更好。4种处理的氮素矿化效果总体表现为鸡粪>猪粪>牛粪>空白。 In order to reveal the effects of different organic fertilizers on nitrogen mineralization characteristics in a coal mining reclamation soil,a pot experiment was conducted by using a subsidence reclamation soil,which collected from Shuiyu Coal Mining in Xiaoyi City,Shanxi Province.The nitrogen mineralization dynamic characteristics of 0~161 days after application of three organic fertilizers(chicken manure,pig manure,cattle manure)were studied by indoor aerobic incubation method under 40%water content and 30℃incubation conditions.The nitrogen supply characteristics of different organic fertilizers in the reclaimed soil of the mining area could be predicted,which could provide a scientific basis for the rational application of organic fertilizers for the fertility improvement of low-yield farmland.The results showed:(1)The dynamic trend of NH4+—N content in each treatment was basically same.The NH4+—N contents decreased rapidly with incubation time at 0~14 days,which were significantly negative correlation with the incubation time(P<0.01).The NH4+—N contents remained at the low level at 14~161 days.At the end of incubation,the content of NH4+—N in each treatment was lower than 1.31 mg/kg.(2)The dynamic trend of soil NO3-—N content,NO3-—N accumulation amount and mineral nitrogen accumulation showed an increased S-shaped curve in the whole incubation period,which slowly increased at 0~56 days,quickly increased at 56~84 days,and basically unchanged at 84~161 days.At the end of incubation(161 days),the NO3-—N content,NO3-—N accumulation amount and mineral nitrogen accumulation varied among different treatments,with a sequence of chicken manure>pig manure>cattle manure>CK,and chicken manure treatment was significantly higher than pig manure treatment and cattle manure treatment,meanwhile pig manure treatment and cattle manure treatment were significantly higher than CK(P<0.05).(3)The time of nitrogen net mineralization in different fertilization treatments was different.The net mineralization of chick
作者 张若扬 郝鲜俊 韩阳 吕鉴于 高文俊 薛玉晨 张博凯 ZHANG Ruoyang;HAO Xianjun;HAN Yang;Lü Jianyu;GAO Wenjun;XUE Yuchen;ZHANG Bokai(College of Resources and Environment,Shanxi Agricultural University,Taigu,Shanxi 030801;National Experimental Teaching Demonstration Center for Agricultural Resources and Environment,Shanxi Agricultural University,Taigu,Shanxi 030801;College of Resources and Environmental Sciences,China Agricultural University,Beijing 100093;College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine,Shanxi Agricultural University,Taigu,Shanxi 030801)
出处 《水土保持学报》 CSCD 北大核心 2020年第2期188-194,共7页 Journal of Soil and Water Conservation
基金 国家自然科学基金项目(41601327) 山西省留学回国人员科技活动择优资助项目 山西农业大学科技创新基金项目(2016ZZ14)。
关键词 有机肥 土壤氮素矿化 采煤塌陷区 organic fertilizer soil nitrogen mineralization coal mining subsidence area
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