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水声超材料研究进展 被引量:1

A review of underwater acoustic metamaterials
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摘要 水声材料的应用是潜艇等水下航行器实现声隐身及提升声探测性能的关键所在.近年来,随着声学超材料的蓬勃发展,各种类型的水声超材料也被提出.相比空气声,水中声波波长更长,传播损耗却小得多,故水声比同频率空气声更难以控制;此外,水介质的密度和声阻抗比空气介质大得多,常规金属不能再被视为刚性而变成弹性体,且水对结构的流体负载不能忽略,故水声超材料的设计和性能预测更为复杂.本文综述了近年来水声超材料的发展历程,主要针对吸收型、去耦型、聚焦型三类与潜艇声隐身和声探测密切相关的水声超材料,对其分类、基本特性、物理机理、研究动态等进行了详尽归纳和总结,并对其发展中面临的难题和趋势进行了探讨和展望.相比传统材料,水声超材料展现出众多超常声学特性,但仍存在低频宽带声波调控能力有限、不能有效兼顾大静压等环境要素、加工制造工艺不足等问题.未来研究中应着力克服上述不足,朝着低频宽带、全向、大平面尺度、亚波长厚度、轻量化、大耐压及多功能复合、环境适应性等方向发展,以更好地实现工程化应用. Underwater acoustic materials are the key to the noise and vibration reduction, stealth, reception and amplification of underwater acoustic signal. However, conventional underwater acoustic materials usually suffer from the weakness of great bulk, heavy weight and poor resistance to hydrodynamic pressure. The advancement of the acoustic metamaterials(AMMs) has provided new insights into fixing these problems, and a variety of underwater AMMs are proposed accordingly.This article reviews the history and the developments of underwater AMMs and the difficulties that existed in the developments of underwater AMMs as compared with the AMMs in air. The focuses are the three types of AMMs which are closely associated with the underwater acoustic stealth and signal reception & amplification of hull-mounted sonar, i.e.,the AMMs for sound absorption, AMMs for decoupling and those for sound focusing. The classification, physical mechanisms and controlling effects of those three types of underwater AMMs are reviewed in details.The AMMs for underwater sound absorption can be divided into local-resonance(LR) and non-resonance types. The LR types take advantages of the local resonance principle with the controlling wavelengths orders of magnitude greater than the physical dimension of a unit. To overcome the intrinsic narrow-band limitations of LR and broaden the bandwidths,efforts have been made to utilize multilayer LR-AMMs or multi-size LRs, attach/embed elastic plate scatter on/into elastically coated plate, or introduce complex lattices with multiple(coupled) LRs, etc. The non-resonance types are basedon non-resonance mechanisms such as viscous loss, heat conduction, macromolecular relaxation or a combination of them.These AMMs mainly include porous metals and nonmetal materials, gradient AMMs and acoustic meta-surfaces, etc. The AMMs for underwater decoupling mainly use acoustically soft AMMs to decouple the vibration of the base structure from adjacent fluid. These AMMs contain the acoustic coating embedded with various
作者 张燕妮 陈克安 郝夏影 程营 Yanni Zhang;Ke’an Chen;Xiaying Hao;Ying Cheng(Key Laboratory of Ocean Acoustics and Sensing,Ministry of Industry and In formation Technology,School of Marine Science and Technology,Northwestern Polytechnical University,Xi'an 710072,China;Key Laboratory of Ship Vibration and Noise,China Ship Scientific Research Center,Wuxi 214082,China;Jiangsu Green Ship Technology Key Laboratory,Wuxi 214082,China;Kev Laboratory of Modern Acoustics,Ministry of Education,School of Physics,Nanjing University,Nanjing 210093,China)
出处 《科学通报》 EI CAS CSCD 北大核心 2020年第15期1396-1410,共15页 Chinese Science Bulletin
基金 国家自然科学基金(11874303,11504324) 陕西省自然科学基础研究计划(2018JQ1001) 西安市科学技术协会青年人才托举计划 中央高校基本科研业务费专项(3102019HHZY030024) 高等学校学科创新引智计划(B18041)资助。
关键词 水声超材料 声隐身 去耦 吸声 声聚焦 减振降噪 underwater acoustic metamaterials sound stealth decoupling sound absorption sound focus/amplification noise and vibration reduction
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