为了解城市人工湿地水体中汞的时空分布及甲基化特征,以便探究其潜在的汞暴露生态风险,在重庆市选择4个不同类型的人工湿地,于2017年3月~2018年3月,按季度采集垂直剖面水样,分析总汞(THg)和甲基汞(MeHg)的分布.结果表明:城市人工湿地由于景观布局、功能设置不同,其汞分布特征有一定差异. 4个湿地水体THg均高于背景水域,但远低于有污染历史的水体;湿地中部水体THg均略高于进、出水口,表明城市湿地对水体THg有截留作用.除彩云湖湿地出水口MeHg浓度高于入水口外,其余3个湿地出水口MeHg均低于入水口;湿地中水体MeHg呈随水深增加而升高的趋势,且MeHg占THg的比例(MeHg/THg)均高于其他水域,说明城市湿地具有净汞甲基化的作用. 4个城市湿地水体THg春秋两季高,夏季略有降低,冬季最低;水体MeHg冬季最低,而其他三季差异不大但远高于冬季,约为冬季的3倍.本研究明晰了城市湿地中汞的时空分布和甲基化规律,探究了人类活动对湿地的干扰程度和湿地的响应特征以及湿地汞对下游流域的影响,从控制潜在汞暴露风险的角度,为人工湿地建设提供建议.
To explore the spatial and temporal distribution and the methylation characteristics of mercury in different constructed wetlands in cities,and to understand the potential ecological exposure of mercury in urban wetlands,four artificial wetlands in Chongqing were studied from March 2017 to March 2018.The water samples were collected separately in four quarters,and the mass concentration of total mercury(THg)and methyl mercury(MeHg)was researched for one year.The results showed that the THg concentration in the four wetland waters is higher than the background value of the world’s lakes and reservoirs for dam construction,but it is far lower than the waters with pollution history.The THg mass concentration of the water inside the wetlands is slightly higher than in the inlet and outlet.In addition,the THg mass concentration in the aquatic plant growing area,the construction area,the cruise ship parking area,and the frequent play area has an increasing trend,indicating that urban wetlands have a trapping and converging effect of the water’s THg,so human activities influence total mercury a lot.The mass concentration of MeHg in the four wetland waters was slightly higher than that in other water bodies.With the exception of the Caiyun Lake,where the mass concentration of MeHg at the outlet was higher than that of the water inlet,the other three wetlands showed lower MeHg mass concentration in the outlet than the inlet.The mass concentration of MeHg in the wetland water increased with increasing water depth.The ratio of MeHg concentration to THg mass concentration(MeHg/THg)was higher than in other waters,indicating that urban wetlands have effect on net mercury methylation from waters.The photoreduction of mercury and its absorption by aquatic plants can reduce the mercury load from urban wetlands to downstream watersheds.The THg mass concentration of the four urban wetland water bodies was high in the spring and autumn,with a slight decrease in the summer,and lowest in the winter.The mass concentration of MeHg w
Chinese Journal of Environmental Science