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有机物料还田对土壤导水导气性的综合影响 预览

Comprehensive Effects of Organic Materials Incorporation on Soil Hydraulic Conductivity and Air Permeability
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摘要 【目的】综合分析不同有机物料还田对土壤透水通气能力的影响,对改善作物根区土壤水分和空气环境,提高土壤生产力具有重要意义。【方法】本研究在陕西关中平原?土上开展了2年(2014年6月至2016年6月)田间小区定位试验,以单施化肥为对照,分析不同有机物料(麦秆、麦壳、土粪和生物肥)配施化肥对0—30 cm土层土壤孔隙性、导水性和导气性的影响,并运用主成分分析综合评价土壤导水导气性。【结果】有机物料还田可改善土壤孔隙性,促进土壤已有孔隙向较大孔隙发育,尤其在0—10 cm和20—30 cm土层,土壤大孔隙较对照显著(P<0.05)增加12.3%—136.4%;而在10—20 cm土层仅增施麦秆2年后土壤大孔隙显著(P<0.05)增加。有机物料还田显著(P<0.05)提高了0—10 cm和10—20 cm土壤导水性,增加土壤初渗率、稳渗率、平均入渗率、90 min累积入渗量和饱和导水率,其中增施麦秆在0—10 cm土层增幅最大,较对照增加5.3—8.8倍,增施生物肥在10—20 cm土层增幅最大,较对照增加2.0—4.5倍;增施生物肥也显著改善了20—30 cm土层土壤导水性。在土壤导气性方面,增施麦秆和麦壳较对照显著(P<0.05)提高0—10 cm土层土壤孔隙连通性进而增加土壤导气率;而增施生物肥较对照显著(P<0.05)提高了10—20 cm和20—30 cm土层的土壤导气率。通过主成分分析综合评价0—30 cm土层土壤导水导气性,结果表明0—10 cm土层增施麦秆最优;10—20 cm和20—30 cm土层增施生物肥最优。【结论】综合考虑,增施生物肥是关中平原相对较好的有机物料还田方式,对10—30 cm土层导水导气性的综合改善效果最优,可有效缓解?土亚表层紧实化,改善根区土壤的透水通气效能。 【Objective】 The comprehensive analysis of soil water and gas transport properties in response to different types of organic amendments is important for optimizing water and air environment of root-zone soil and improving the soil productivity.【Method】 For this purpose, a two-year(from June 2014 to June 2016) field experiment was conducted with a fixed plot test on a Lou soil(Eum-Orthic Anthrosols) in the Guanzhong Plain. There were five treatments: application of mineral fertilizer both alone(control, CK) and along with wheat straw(MWS), wheat husk(MWH), farmyard soil(MFS), and bioorganic fertilizer(MBF). This experiment was used to study the effects of combined use of mineral fertilizer and organic materials on soil porosity, hydraulic conductivity and air permeability in the 0-30 cm soil layer. These soil parameters were comprehensively evaluated by using the principal component analysis method.【Result】 Integrated application of organic materials and mineral fertilizer improved soil pore size distribution and promoted the increase in macro-porosity compared to the CK treatment. This was especially true at the 0-10 cm and 20-30 cm soil depths, where incorporation of organic materials significantly(P<0.05) increased soil macro-porosity by12.3%-136.4% compare to the CK treatment. The significant(P<0.05) increase in the macro-porosity was also recorded in the MWS treatment at the 10-20 cm depth soil layer compared to the CK treatment. Combination with organic materials and mineral fertilizer significantly(P<0.05) enhanced soil hydraulic conductivity at the 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil depths compared to the CK treatment, such as increasing initial infiltration rate, steady infiltration rate, average infiltration rate, 90 min cumulative infiltration, as well as saturated hydraulic conductivity. These parameters were highest in the MWS treatment(greater by 5.3-8.8 times compared to the CK treatment) at the 0-10 cm soil depth and in the MBF treatment(greater by 2.0-4.5 times compared to the CK treatment) at t
作者 赵丽丽 李陆生 蔡焕杰 石小虎 薛少平 ZHAO LiLi;LI LuSheng;CAI HuanJie;SHI XiaoHu;XUE ShaoPing(Key Laboratory for Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid Area of Ministry of Education,Northwest A&F University,Yangling 712100,Shaanxi;Institute of Water Saving Agriculture in Arid Regions of China,Northwest A&F University,Yangling 712100,Shaanxi;School of Water Conservancy,North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power,Zhengzhou 450046;College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering,Northwest A&F University,Yangling 712100,Shaanxi)
出处 《中国农业科学》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第6期1045-1057,共13页 Scientia Agricultura Sinica
基金 国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0400200) 国家自然科学基金(51879223).
关键词 有机物料 孔隙性 入渗性能 饱和导水率 导气率 主成分分析 organic materials porosity infiltration capacity saturated hydraulic conductivity air permeability principal component analysis
作者简介 赵丽丽,E-mail:sdytdxzll@163.com;通信作者:蔡焕杰,E-mail:caihj@nwsuaf.edu.cn。
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