精准扶贫背景下,旅游扶贫地居民对旅游发展的影响感知反映了旅游扶贫政策实施的实际效应,其内部差异、类型值得深入研究。基于从恩施州22个旅游扶贫村收集的问卷调查数据,引入潜在冲突指数(Potential Conflict Index,PCI),运用主成分分析、聚类分析方法,分析旅游扶贫村居民影响感知的维度、水平和内部差异,并对其分类。研究结果表明:(1)恩施州旅游扶贫村居民认可旅游发展带来的环境-社会效益、扶贫效益和素质提升作用,但认可度普遍不高,认为旅游发展没有带来环境、社会和经济成本;(2)居民对旅游发展、扶贫效益、素质提升、环境成本和经济成本的感知存在较大内部差异;(3)基于这些差异,将居民分为旅游发展认可者、经济成本关注者、谨慎观望者、扶贫效益认可者、环境成本关注者五类。最后,根据分析结果,针对五类居民,提出了建议。
In the context of targeted poverty alleviation, residents’ perception on tourism impacts(RPTI) in tourism poverty-alleviation villages(TPAVs) reflects the actual effect of the implementation of tourism poverty-alleviation policy. Then, its internal differences and types deserve further study. By using the questionnaire data collected from 547 residents in 22 TPAVs in Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture of Hubei Province, principal component analysis was used to explore the dimension and overall level of RPTI in these TPAVs. A potential conflict index(PCI) was applied to examine whether residents are different in their perception. Cluster analysis was used to classify the residents into groups. The results show that, RPTI are categorized to seven dimensions as poverty-alleviation benefits, environmental-social benefits, people’s quality improvement, tourism development, environmental costs, social costs, and economic costs. The residents generally agree on the environmental-social benefits, poverty-alleviation benefits, and people’s quality improvement, but at a low level. However, they do not agree on the environmental costs, social costs, and economic costs of tourism development. There are relatively big differences among residents in perceiving tourism development, poverty-alleviation benefits, people’s quality improvement, environmental costs, and economic costs. Based on these variables relatively different among residents, five groups of residents are identified and they are tourism development recognizers, economic costs focused group, cautious pussyfooters, poverty-alleviation effect recognizers, and environmental cost focused group respectively. Accordingly, it is proposed that tourism economy should be developed to replace'wage economy'and drive local agriculture and service in Enshi TPAVs. More residents’ especially low-income ones should be involved in and benefit from tourism development. The concerns and needs of different groups should be taken into account respectively.
tourism poverty-alleviation villages
residents’ perception on tourism impacts
potential conflict index(PCI)