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冷凉区旱地玉米微垄覆膜土壤水热及产量效应研究 被引量:1

Effects of Micro-Ridge Film Mulching on Soil Water and Temperature and Yield of Dryland Maize in Cold Areas
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摘要 针对冷凉区旱地玉米生产中存在的干旱缺水和低温冷凉两大主要限制因子,于2016年采用单因素随机区组设计,在山西省旱作节水农业试验示范基地阳曲县河村,采用地膜半覆盖模式,设置5种不同覆膜起垄高度处理,进行了冷凉区旱地玉米微垄覆膜土壤水热及产量效应研究。结果表明,覆膜垄高每增加5cm,玉米苗期垄侧播种行8cm日平均地温降低0.3℃;当覆膜垄高从0cm增加到5和10cm时,膜侧播种行0~20cm土壤含水量分别极显著(P<0.01)增加3.6和5.3个百分点;覆膜垄高每增加10cm,玉米拔节期推迟1d,抽雄吐丝期相应推迟1d;覆膜垄高5cm处理的经济产量极显著(P<0.01)高于垄高15cm、垄高20cm和地膜平铺处理,与垄高10cm处理之间没有显著差异;覆膜垄高5和10cm处理的水分利用效率最高,极显著(P<0.01)高于地膜平铺和垄高20cm处理,平均较地膜平铺和垄高20cm处理分别提高2.1和2.2kg/(hm~2·mm),增幅分别为6.8%和7.2%。研究认为,微垄覆膜(垄高5~10cm)可以协调垄高增加引起的增温和微集水之间的矛盾,同时兼顾地膜覆盖增温、保墒和微集水效应,增产增效,是冷凉区旱地玉米适宜的地膜覆盖方式。 Aiming at the two main limiting factors of drought or water shortage and low-temperature in dryland maize production in cold areas,an experiment of single factor random block design was conducted in the demonstration base of water-saving agriculture of Yangqu County,Shanxi Province.Five half-mulching treatments with different ridge heights were set up to study the effects of micro-ridge film mulching on soil water and temperature and yield of dryland maize in cold areas.The results showed that the average soil temperature of film side sowing line 8 cm decreased by0.3 for every 5 cm mulching-ridge increase by 5 cm;when the ridge height increased from 0 cm to 5 cm and 10 cm,the soil water content of 0-20 cm was significantly increased by 3.6 and 5.3 percentage points(P<0.01);For every10 cm of mulching ridge height increase,the jointing stage of maize was delayed by 1 d,and the stage of sprouting and silking was delayed by 1 d.The economic yield(P<0.01)of the ridge height 5 cm treatment was significantly higher than that of the ridge height of 15,20 and 0 cm treatments,and there was no significant difference with the treatment of 10 cm ridge height.The water use efficiencies(WUE)of the treatments of 5 cm and 10 cm ridge heights,which was significantly higher than that of the 0 and 20 cm ridge height,and the average increase was 2.1 and 2.2 kg/(hm~2·mm),which were increased by 6.8%and 7.2%,respectively.The results showed that micro-ridge mulching(ridge height5-10 cm)could coordinate the contradiction between the two of increasing soil temperature and micro-collecting water by increasing the ridge height.And at the same time,it can take into account the effects of mulching of increasing soil temperature,preserving soil moisture and micro-collecting water,and increase yield and WUE.It is an appropriate mulching method for dryland maize in cold areas.
作者 张冬梅 黄学芳 姜春霞 张伟 王晓娟 刘化涛 闫六英 刘恩科 翟广谦 Zhang Dongmei;Huang Xuefang;Jiang Chunxia;Zhang Wei;Wang Xiaojuan;Liu Huatao;Yan Liuying;Liu Enke;Zhai Guangqian(Dryland Agriculture Research Center,Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Taiyuan 030031,Shanxi,China)
出处 《作物杂志》 CAS 北大核心 2019年第2期115-121,共7页 Crops
基金 国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0300305) 山西省农业科学院攻关项目(YCX2017D2401) 山西省科技攻关计划项目(201703D221001-5) 国家公益性行业(农业)科研专项(201503124).
关键词 冷凉区 旱地玉米 微垄覆膜 土壤水热 产量 Cold areas Dryland maize Micro-ridge film mulching Soil water and temperature Yield
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