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小偃麦衍生品系的赤霉病抗性评价 预览
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作者 张晓军 肖进 +8 位作者 王海燕 乔麟轶 李欣 郭慧娟 常利芳 张树伟 阎晓涛 畅志坚 武宗信 《作物学报》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2020年第1期62-73,共12页
由镰孢属(Fusarium)真菌侵染引起的赤霉病是严重威胁小麦生产的重要病害之一,但小麦育种中可直接利用的抗源非常有限。采用单花滴注法接种赤霉菌株F0609,对来源于中间偃麦草或长穗偃麦草的119份小偃麦衍生品系进行3年6个环境的抗病鉴定... 由镰孢属(Fusarium)真菌侵染引起的赤霉病是严重威胁小麦生产的重要病害之一,但小麦育种中可直接利用的抗源非常有限。采用单花滴注法接种赤霉菌株F0609,对来源于中间偃麦草或长穗偃麦草的119份小偃麦衍生品系进行3年6个环境的抗病鉴定,发现平均病小穗率<10%的材料有13份,抗性评价为抗病(R);平均病小穗率介于10%~25%之间的材料有61份,抗性评价为中抗(MR);其余45份材料的平均病小穗率介于25%~50%或>50%,抗性评价为中感或高感(MS和S)。在13份高抗赤霉病材料中,CH16387的抗性显著优于苏麦3号和望水白,CH16371和CH16379的抗性显著优于望水白,其余10个品系与抗病对照苏麦3号和望水白的抗性水平相当。这13份材料分别来自小麦-中间偃麦草部分双二倍体TAI8045和小麦-长穗偃麦草部分双二倍体TAP8430与普通小麦的杂交组合,TAI8045抗性显著优于对照品种望水白, TAP8430与苏麦3号和望水白的抗性相当,而杂交组合中的小麦亲本对赤霉病表现感病,推测这些材料的抗性可能来自TAI8045和TAP8430。这些抗病材料为小麦抗赤霉病育种提供了新的种质资源。 展开更多
关键词 小麦 赤霉病 偃麦草 遗传改良 种质资源
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2008-2018年东北春麦区小麦生产与育种概况 预览 被引量:1
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作者 赵丽娟 宋维富 +5 位作者 车京玉 杨雪峰 宋庆杰 张春利 辛文利 肖志敏 《黑龙江农业科学》 2019年第5期146-151,共6页
东北春麦区是我国优质强筋和超强筋小麦的重要生产基地,具有发展优质强筋“硬红春”面包麦生产的自然资源优势和规模化生产优势。该区小麦生产对于我国产业结构调整的农业供给侧改革具有重要意义。为详细介绍近10年东北春麦区小麦生产... 东北春麦区是我国优质强筋和超强筋小麦的重要生产基地,具有发展优质强筋“硬红春”面包麦生产的自然资源优势和规模化生产优势。该区小麦生产对于我国产业结构调整的农业供给侧改革具有重要意义。为详细介绍近10年东北春麦区小麦生产和育种情况,本文对2008-2018年东北春麦区小麦生产情况,主栽品种特性,小麦育种现状进行了总结。并进一步对该区未来的育种策略进行了探讨和建议,以期推动该区强筋小麦产业发展。 展开更多
关键词 小麦 东北春麦区 强筋小麦 小麦生产 小麦育种
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小麦冠层温度分异现象的研究进展 预览
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作者 程晶晶 王军 +1 位作者 司晓丹 张有铎 《广东化工》 CAS 2019年第9期149-150,141共3页
在生态环境和栽培措施完全相同的一个小尺度范围内,以当地主栽品种做对照,冠层温度比对照品种偏高的小麦称为暖型小麦;冠层温度比对照品种偏低的小麦称为冷型小麦。该文论述了小麦冠层温度分异现象以及不同温度型小麦在生物学特征、产... 在生态环境和栽培措施完全相同的一个小尺度范围内,以当地主栽品种做对照,冠层温度比对照品种偏高的小麦称为暖型小麦;冠层温度比对照品种偏低的小麦称为冷型小麦。该文论述了小麦冠层温度分异现象以及不同温度型小麦在生物学特征、产量、抗逆性、抗病性等方面的差异。 展开更多
关键词 小麦 冠层温度 冷型小麦 暖型小麦
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小麦软硬度对高温大曲的影响 预览
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作者 冯雨 《酿酒》 CAS 2019年第2期88-89,共2页
高温大曲是以小麦为原料制成的并含有以细菌为主要菌种的大曲。高温大曲除了糖化和发酵、投粮等作用外,更重要的是为酱香型白酒带入了特有的酱香风味。酿酒行业流传“曲为酒骨”等说法,说明大曲质量的好坏直接影响酒的产量和质量,而小... 高温大曲是以小麦为原料制成的并含有以细菌为主要菌种的大曲。高温大曲除了糖化和发酵、投粮等作用外,更重要的是为酱香型白酒带入了特有的酱香风味。酿酒行业流传“曲为酒骨”等说法,说明大曲质量的好坏直接影响酒的产量和质量,而小麦的品种也会直接影响大曲质量的好坏。对制曲而言,小麦主要分为软质麦和硬质麦。软质小麦的粉质率不低于70%,硬质小麦的角质率不低于70%。 展开更多
关键词 高温大曲 小麦 软质麦 硬质麦
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小麦发酵产酒精及酒糟蛋白饲料工艺的研究 预览
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作者 孙振江 佟毅 +3 位作者 梁坤国 罗虎 贾红娜 赖铭雪 《中国酿造》 CAS 北大核心 2019年第6期140-143,共4页
以小麦为原料进行酒精发酵研究,采用单因素试验探究了小麦粉浆固形物含量、液化时间、糖化酶添加量、酸性蛋白酶添加量对发酵效果的影响。结果表明,小麦粉浆固形物含量为28%,87~89 ℃液化1 h,糖化酶添加量1.1 kg/t原料,且酸性蛋白酶添加... 以小麦为原料进行酒精发酵研究,采用单因素试验探究了小麦粉浆固形物含量、液化时间、糖化酶添加量、酸性蛋白酶添加量对发酵效果的影响。结果表明,小麦粉浆固形物含量为28%,87~89 ℃液化1 h,糖化酶添加量1.1 kg/t原料,且酸性蛋白酶添加量0.03 kg/t粉时其发酵效果较好,最终发酵酒精度达(13.54±0.10)%vol,副产品小麦酒糟蛋白饲料粗蛋白含量达(38.58±2.00)%。 展开更多
关键词 小麦 发酵工艺 小麦酒糟蛋白饲料 酸性蛋白酶
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Impact of Climate Change on Epidemiology of Various Pests of Wheat Crop in Punjab Pakistan 预览
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作者 Israr Arshad Amer Rasul +9 位作者 Syed Ismat Hussain Hafiz Muhammad Usman Aslam Khizar Hayat Malik Najam Ul Hassan Sidra Muqeet   Amina Yasir Umar Shabab Nasir Anum Tehseen 《美国植物学期刊(英文)》 2019年第1期236-247,共12页
Wheat [Triticum aestivum L. (Poaceae)] is the staple diet of people in Pakistan. It is attacked by many types of pests. Therefore the purpose of this study was to assess the impact of climate change on the ecology and... Wheat [Triticum aestivum L. (Poaceae)] is the staple diet of people in Pakistan. It is attacked by many types of pests. Therefore the purpose of this study was to assess the impact of climate change on the ecology and epidemiology of various wheat pests in Punjab, Pakistan. Results indicate that maximum weeds hot spots 242 (5.98%) Phalaris minor, 45 (1.18%) wild oat and 203 (5.01%) broad leaf weeds were noted in 2015. Aphid 31 (0.86%) hot spots were recorded in 2016 while maximum army worm 13 (0.26%) hot spots were noted in 2017. Maximum 70 (1.73%) spots of yellow rust and 85 (2.10%) hot spots of brown rust were observed during 2015 while 84 (4.16%) spots of loose smut were observed during 2017. ANOVA shows that years have no significant difference (P > 0.05) but weeks have significant effect on occurrence of these pest incidences except brown rust. But regression ANOVA was significant (P ≤ 0.05) and regression models equations have been developed on the bases of recorded data. Pest incidence was taken as dependent variable Y and weather factors i.e. minimum temperature as X1, maximum temperature as X2, relative humidity as X3 and rain fall as X4 were taken as independent variables. This study will help in recommendations for moving forward aiming at integration of biology of rust and smut diseases of wheat with changing climate for development of resistant varieties for resilient and durable management of these pathogens. 展开更多
关键词 Climate Change WHEAT WEEDS INSECT PEST Disease Ecology
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Study on the effect of wheat bran dietary fiber on the rheological properties of dough 预览
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作者 Ning Liu Sen Ma +1 位作者 Li Li Xiaoxi Wang 《粮油科技:英文版》 2019年第1期1-5,共5页
The aim of the study was to determine the influence of wheat bran dietary fiber on wheat flour dough rheological properties.In this paper,wheat bran dietary fiber(WBDF)with different levels(0,3%,6%,9%,12%)were added t... The aim of the study was to determine the influence of wheat bran dietary fiber on wheat flour dough rheological properties.In this paper,wheat bran dietary fiber(WBDF)with different levels(0,3%,6%,9%,12%)were added to wheat flour and the characterization of dough rheological properties was conducted by rapid visco-analyzer,farinograph,as well as rotational rheometer.The results from pasting properties showed a gradual reduction in peak viscosity,trough viscosity,final viscosity and setback with increasing WBDF content.At high WBDF concentration,the significant increase of water absorption,formation time as well as weakening degree implied the harder formation of gluten network structure and the competition for water between gluten and WBDF particles.Such conclusion was in line with the findings from dynamic rheology tests,in which the doughs containing WBDF were more sensitive to strain regardless of their rigid and stiff texture.This study revealed vulnerable dough structure induced by WBDF,as well as the strengthened elastic property,elaborating the harmful effects ofWBDF on the rheological properties of doughs. 展开更多
关键词 WHEAT BRAN DIETARY fiber WHEAT DOUGH RHEOLOGICAL properties VISCOELASTICITY
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Variation in Telial Formation of <i>Puccinia striiformis</i>in the United States 预览
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作者 Anmin Wan Meinan Wang Xianming Chen 《美国植物学期刊(英文)》 2019年第5期826-849,共24页
Puccinia striiformis, the causal agent of stripe rust in wheat, barley, and various wild grasses, produces urediniospores and teliospores on these primary or auxiliary hosts. Telial formation, which stops producing in... Puccinia striiformis, the causal agent of stripe rust in wheat, barley, and various wild grasses, produces urediniospores and teliospores on these primary or auxiliary hosts. Telial formation, which stops producing infectious urediniospores, is affected by various host and environmental conditions. However, it is not clear if variation exists among different isolates in the United States. To determine the differences in the pathogen population, 1423 isolates collected in the United States from 2013 to 2016 were tested for telial formation in the seedling stage at a diurnal temperature profile of 4&deg;C - 20&deg;C. The percentages of telial formation varied greatly among the isolates. Of the 1423 isolates, 62.97% produced telia with the percentages of telial formation ranging from 1% to 95% under the test conditions. The formation of telia was significantly affected by the year and the month when the isolates were collected. The epidemiological regions or states, host plants (wheat, barley, and grasses), and races of the isolates did not significantly affect telial formation. However, significant effects on telial formation were observed by interactions between year and region, year and race, month and region and among year, month, and region, as well as between year and month. The results showed that telial formation is a complex trait under the genetic control of the pathogen isolates for adaptation to different environments. Further studies are needed to identify genes involved in the formation of telia and the relationship of telial formation to the survival, aggressiveness, fitness, and evolution of the pathogen. 展开更多
关键词 PUCCINIA STRIIFORMIS STRIPE RUST Telial Formation Wheat
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干旱与Cd双重胁迫对土壤-小麦-蚜虫系统Cd转移规律影响的研究 预览
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作者 舒启豪 孔艳艳 +2 位作者 罗坤 李媛 赵惠燕 《中国生态农业学报(中英文)》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第11期1656-1662,共7页
为探究干旱和重金属双重胁迫对土壤-小麦-蚜虫系统内Cd转移规律的影响,为小麦蚜虫的生态调节提供理论依据,本研究以麦长管蚜[Sitobionavenae(Fabricius)]为研究对象,用原子吸收分光光度法分别测定不同土壤Cd含量(100 mg·kg^-1、200... 为探究干旱和重金属双重胁迫对土壤-小麦-蚜虫系统内Cd转移规律的影响,为小麦蚜虫的生态调节提供理论依据,本研究以麦长管蚜[Sitobionavenae(Fabricius)]为研究对象,用原子吸收分光光度法分别测定不同土壤Cd含量(100 mg·kg^-1、200 mg·kg^-1)及不同程度干旱胁迫(无胁迫、中度胁迫、重度胁迫)处理下小麦根茎叶及蚜虫体内的Cd含量。结果表明:土壤Cd含量及干旱单一胁迫均对小麦及蚜虫体内的Cd含量造成了显著影响(P<0.05)。两者交互作用对小麦根部及叶部的Cd含量影响显著,而对小麦茎部及蚜虫体内Cd含量影响不显著。在相同胁迫条件下, Cd在小麦中的积累分布为根>茎>叶。随着干旱胁迫程度增大,小麦根部Cd含量及土壤-根转移系数降低,茎部Cd含量及根-茎转移系数升高,麦长管蚜Cd含量在土壤Cd含量100mg·kg^-1下高于土壤Cd含量200 mg·kg^-1;中度干旱胁迫增加了麦长管蚜体内Cd累积量,而重度干旱胁迫则降低了其体内Cd累积量。叶-蚜虫的Cd转移系数明显大于土壤-根、根-茎和茎-叶转移系数且大于1,说明Cd在麦长管蚜体内产生了生物富集作用。综上所述,干旱胁迫促进了Cd从土壤向小麦茎部转移和根部Cd累积,但抑制了Cd从根部到茎部转移和茎部Cd累积;中度干旱胁迫促进了麦长管蚜体内Cd的积累,而重度干旱胁迫抑制了麦长管蚜体内Cd的积累。 展开更多
关键词 干旱 CD 污染 双重胁迫 小麦 麦长管蚜 土壤-小麦-蚜虫系统
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A brief history of wheat utilization in China
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作者 Minxia LU Liang CHEN +4 位作者 Jinxiu WANG Ruiliang LIU Yang YANG Meng WEI Guanghui DONG 《农业科学与工程前沿:英文版》 2019年第3期288-295,共8页
Wheat is one of the most important crops in both China and the world, and its domestication can be traced back to ~10000 years ago.However, the history of its origin and utilization in China remains highly ambiguous.D... Wheat is one of the most important crops in both China and the world, and its domestication can be traced back to ~10000 years ago.However, the history of its origin and utilization in China remains highly ambiguous.Drawing upon the most recent results of taxonomic, genetic, archeological and textual studies focused on the wheat in prehistory, this paper argues that wheat was not domesticated but introduced into China in the late fifth millennium BP.In the subsequent centuries,this exotic crop was quickly utilized as a staple food in northwest China.In contrast, it was not adopted as a staple in the Central Plains until the Han Dynasty(202 BCE–220 CE), which was mainly as a consequence of the living environment, population and innovations in food processing technology. 展开更多
关键词 MULTIDISCIPLINARY evidence PREHISTORIC food GLOBALIZATION WHEAT consumption WHEAT DOMESTICATION
小麦条锈菌效应蛋白HASP2抑制寄主免疫反应
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作者 季森 赵梦鑫 +3 位作者 徐静华 汤春蕾 康振生 王晓杰 《植物病理学报》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第3期326-333,共8页
由小麦条锈菌(Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici,Pst)引起的小麦条锈病是小麦上的重要病害。研究小麦条锈菌在致病过程中分泌的毒性效应蛋白分子的功能,对揭示小麦条锈菌致病机理,进而研发病害防治新方法具有重要意义。前期在小麦条... 由小麦条锈菌(Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici,Pst)引起的小麦条锈病是小麦上的重要病害。研究小麦条锈菌在致病过程中分泌的毒性效应蛋白分子的功能,对揭示小麦条锈菌致病机理,进而研发病害防治新方法具有重要意义。前期在小麦条锈菌吸器转录组中筛选到一个高丰度表达的分泌蛋白基因HASP2。HASP2基因全长240 bp,其编码的蛋白质N端包含22_aa的信号肽,无跨膜区,无结构域。qRT-PCR显示HASP2在条锈菌CYR32侵染早期上调表达;农杆菌介导的烟草瞬时表达实验表明HASP2能够抑制由小鼠凋亡蛋白BAX诱导的烟草细胞坏死;利用细菌三型分泌系统(T3SS)将HASP2在小麦中过表达,发现其可以抑制寄主PTI(PAMP-triggered immunity)相关胼胝质积累;同时对HASP2过表达的小麦接种无毒性菌系CYR23后,发现HASP2可以抑制寄主ETI(Effector-triggered immunity)相关活性氧积累和减少细胞坏死面积,但HASP2过表达对条锈菌的生长发育没有显著影响。 展开更多
关键词 小麦 小麦条锈菌 效应蛋白 PTI ETI
小麦空间布局演变及驱动因素分析的研究现状 预览 被引量:1
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作者 叶志标 李文娟 《中国农业资源与区划》 CSSCI CSCD 北大核心 2019年第3期158-165,共8页
[目的]小麦是我国主要粮食作物之一,研究小麦空间布局演变规律和驱动因素,是进一步优化小麦生产布局,提高小麦综合生产能力,保障国家粮食安全的现实要求。[方法]通过文献综述方法,比较全面地介绍了集中度指数、比较优势指数、变异系数... [目的]小麦是我国主要粮食作物之一,研究小麦空间布局演变规律和驱动因素,是进一步优化小麦生产布局,提高小麦综合生产能力,保障国家粮食安全的现实要求。[方法]通过文献综述方法,比较全面地介绍了集中度指数、比较优势指数、变异系数和空间统计分析、农业生态区AEZ模型、重心模型、耕作制度区划、Moran’s I及Panel Data模型等在小麦生产布局和驱动因素研究中的应用。[结果]在全面讨论上述方法应用于小麦空间布局演变研究的适用性后,总结归纳了推动我国小麦空间布局演变的主要驱动因素。[结论]我国粮食空间布局演变的总体规律为:由'南粮北调'转变为'北粮南运'、'北进中移',北部和中部成为了全国粮食的增长中心。我国小麦空间布局演变的驱动因素主要有气候因素、技术进步因素、生产投入因素和其他社会因素。 展开更多
关键词 小麦 空间布局 区域布局 粮食作物 驱动因素
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小麦及小麦粉面筋质测定中有关问题分析 预览
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作者 耿丽娜 余翠 赵丹丹 《现代食品》 2019年第23期129-132,共4页
小麦和小麦粉中面筋含量直接影响小麦和小麦粉的品质。对小麦以及小麦粉中面筋含量进行相关探究,对实验过程中出现的问题提出相应的解决方案,以提高小麦以及小麦粉中面筋含量测定的精确度,提高相关工作人员的工作效率。
关键词 小麦小麦粉 面筋质测定 测定方法
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Market Capturing and Business Expansion Strategy for Gluten-Free Foods in India and USA Using PESTEL Model 预览
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作者 Jolly Masih Rajasekaran Rajkumar +1 位作者 Paviter Singh Matharu Amita Sharma 《农业科学(英文)》 2019年第2期202-213,共12页
The ultimate goal for any business is to grow vertically and horizontally. Successful business is combination of careful analysis of external and internal factor of business environment and adoption of appropriate bus... The ultimate goal for any business is to grow vertically and horizontally. Successful business is combination of careful analysis of external and internal factor of business environment and adoption of appropriate business strategy. In this study external factors of gluten-free market are studied in detail through PESTEL model (for external factors). The study would facilitate manufacturers to bring gluten-free foods from niche market to main stream market and to make it more affordable for all the sections of the society. The study focuses on markets of India and USA, since both of these nations have high potential for gluten-free foods and the demand further continues to increase every year. 展开更多
关键词 GLUTEN-FREE Wheat BUSINESS Strategy CELIAC Disease PESTEL MODEL
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宁春4号与河东乌麦杂交F2品质性状及其分子标记分析 预览 被引量:2
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作者 王掌军 刘妍 +6 位作者 李阳 杨乔乔 田蕊 亢玲 张晓岗 刘萍 刘生祥 《河南农业科学》 北大核心 2019年第2期17-24,共8页
在明确宁春4号与河东乌麦各自品质性状的基础上,以宁春4号与河东乌麦杂交F2331个单株为材料,进行品质性状及其分子标记分析,以期为宁夏回族自治区小麦品质性状改良发掘可利用的育种中间材料和QTL。结果表明,籽粒含水量、硬度、沉降值、... 在明确宁春4号与河东乌麦各自品质性状的基础上,以宁春4号与河东乌麦杂交F2331个单株为材料,进行品质性状及其分子标记分析,以期为宁夏回族自治区小麦品质性状改良发掘可利用的育种中间材料和QTL。结果表明,籽粒含水量、硬度、沉降值、蛋白质含量、面筋含量在F2均出现较大分离,籽粒蛋白质含量、面筋含量、硬度、沉降值的群体平均值分别为14.71%、32.03%、50.98%、34.77mL,均超过高亲亲本(依次为12.72%、24.06%、48.64%、17.96mL),超高亲比例分别达82.94%、90.48%、66.27%、99.60%;含水量的群体平均值(10.72%)介于高亲亲本(10.75%)与低亲亲本(10.01%)之间,超中亲比例达77.78%,超高亲比例达46.63%。蛋白质含量分别与面筋含量和沉降值、含水量与硬度、面筋含量与沉降值均呈极显著正相关。类群Ⅱ、Ⅲ的蛋白质含量、面筋含量和沉降值均较高,为优质类群。利用分子标记检测到携带Bx17、Psy-A1基因的单株分别为233、294株,同时携带Bx17和Psy-A1基因的单株为206株;利用新开发的5个SSR标记共发掘出8个品质性状QTL位点,涉及5A、1B、5B、7B、5D等5条染色体,加性效应为-2.93~1.86,表型贡献率为3%~5%,LOD值最大为9.40,其中,1B和5D染色体存在品质性状QTL富集区。 展开更多
关键词 小麦 宁春4号 河东乌麦 杂交后代 品质性状 分子标记 QTL
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小麦A基因组测序与进化研究进展 预览 被引量:1
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作者 史晓黎 何伊琳 凌宏清 《遗传》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第9期836-844,共9页
小麦是世界上广泛种植的主要粮食作物,养活了全世界35%以上的人口。获取高质量的基因组图谱对于推动小麦基础理论和遗传育种研究至关重要。然而,庞大而复杂的基因组一度使小麦基因组测序被认为是"不可能完成的任务"。随着高... 小麦是世界上广泛种植的主要粮食作物,养活了全世界35%以上的人口。获取高质量的基因组图谱对于推动小麦基础理论和遗传育种研究至关重要。然而,庞大而复杂的基因组一度使小麦基因组测序被认为是"不可能完成的任务"。随着高通量测序和组装技术的成熟,近年来多个小麦基因组序列图谱陆续发布,序列组装质量日臻完善。仅最近两年就公布了5个不同倍性的小麦参考基因组序列,包括两个二倍体祖先种乌拉尔图小麦(Triticum urartu,AA)和粗山羊草(Aegilops tauschii,DD)、野生和栽培四倍体二粒小麦(T.turgidum ssp.dicoccoides,BBAA)和六倍体普通小麦(T.aestivum,BBAADD)。其中,作为多倍体小麦A亚基因组供体的乌拉尔图小麦基因组测序和分析是由中国科学院遗传与发育生物学研究所牵头完成。本文主要对小麦A基因组的结构解析和进化分析等方面的研究进展进行了综述,以期为相关领域的科研人员提供参考信息,促进小麦的基础和应用研究。 展开更多
关键词 小麦 乌拉尔图小麦 小麦A基因组 基因组测序 染色体演化
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The impacts of climate change on wheat yield in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China using DSSAT-CERES-Wheat model under different climate scenarios 预览
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作者 QU Chun-hong LI Xiang-xiang +1 位作者 JU Hui LIU Qin 《农业科学学报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第6期1379-1391,共13页
Climate change has been documented as a major threat to current agricultural strategies.Progress in understanding the impact of climate change on crop yield is essential for agricultural climate adaptation,especially ... Climate change has been documented as a major threat to current agricultural strategies.Progress in understanding the impact of climate change on crop yield is essential for agricultural climate adaptation,especially for the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain(3H Plain)of China which is an area known to be vulnerable to global warming.In this study,the impacts of climate change on winter wheat(Triticum aestivum L.)yield between the baseline period(1981–2010)and two Representative Concentration Pathways(RCP8.5 and RCP4.5)were simulated for the short-term(2010–2039),the medium-term(2040–2069)and the long-term(2070–2099)in the 3H Plain,by considering the relative contributions of changes in temperature,solar radiation and precipitation using the DSSAT-CERES-Wheat model.Results indicated that the maximum and minimum temperatures(TMAX and TMIN),solar radiation(SRAD),and precipitation(PREP)during the winter wheat season increased under these two RCPs.Yield analysis found that wheat yield increased with the increase in SRAD,PREP and CO2 concentration,but decreased with an increase in temperature.Increasing precipitation contributes the most to the total impact,increasing wheat yield by 9.53,6.62 and 23.73%for the three terms of future climate under RCP4.5 scenario,and 11.74,16.38 and 27.78%for the three terms of future climate under RCP8.5 scenario.However,as increases in temperature bring higher evapotranspiration,which further aggravated water deficits,the supposed negative effect of increasing thermal resources decreased wheat yield by 1.92,4.08 and 5.24%for the three terms of future climate under RCP4.5 scenario,and 3.64,5.87 and 5.81%for the three terms of future climate under RCP8.5 scenario with clearly larger decreases in RCP8.5.Counterintuitively,the impacts in southern sub-regions were positive,but they were all negative in the remaining sub-regions.Our analysis demonstrated that in the 3H Plain,which is a part of the mid-high latitude region,the effects of increasing thermal resources were counteracted by the aggrav 展开更多
关键词 climate change RELATIVE CONTRIBUTION wheat YIELD DSSAT-CERES-Wheat MODEL Huang-Huai-Hai PLAIN
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小麦苗期抗纹枯病鉴定方法的改良及抗病品种筛选
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作者 余蓬勃 任妍 +5 位作者 侯玮秀 郑跃婷 李林杰 王月 耿君佑 陈锋 《植物病理学报》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第5期715-720,共6页
小麦纹枯病又称尖眼斑(点)病,是由禾谷丝核菌(Rhizoctonia cerealis)和立枯丝核菌(Rhizoctonia solani)引起的一种以土壤传播为主的小麦真菌病害[1]。引起小麦纹枯病的病原菌主要是禾谷丝核菌的第一菌丝融合群(CAG-1)[2~4]。
关键词 wheat SHARP EYESPOT SEEDLING STAGE ADULT STAGE resistance identification
Study on Quality Traits for Steamed Bread Made from 25 Representative Wheat Varieties in Shandong Province 预览
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作者 Juan Liu Jichun Tian +2 位作者 Peng Wu Xiangyang Li Chao Li 《农业科学(英文)》 2019年第4期499-507,共9页
In order to study steamed bread quality traits and explore good wheat cultivars, 25 wheat cultivars grown in Shandong province were used through one-process fermentation procedure to examine the variability of steamed... In order to study steamed bread quality traits and explore good wheat cultivars, 25 wheat cultivars grown in Shandong province were used through one-process fermentation procedure to examine the variability of steamed bread quality traits and the correlation between quality and score. The results showed that all the steamed bread quality traits expressed large variable coefficient except volume, L* value, l* value and cohesiveness traits, which suggested that the genetic diversity made from wheat in Shandong province was large. The average comprehensive score of the steamed bread was 76.8 for the tested 25 varieties, and ten varieties reached the good steamed bread level, which were Liangxing 99, Luyuan 205, Jimai 22, Jinan 17, Tainong 19, Wennong 17, Huaiyin 84137, and Huaimai 8. The main quality factors affecting the steamed bread score were volume, L* value, A* value, hardness, chewiness, and adhesiveness. Among these factors, the adhesiveness has a significantly positive correlation with the hardness and cohesive, and the volume has a significantly positive correlation with the A* value. The volume, L* value has a significantly positive correlation with score, A* value, hardness and chewiness, and gumminess has a significantly negative correlation with the score. There was no correlation between the score and other traits. The results will benefit the understanding of steamed bread quality in wheat cultivated in Shandong. &#108; 展开更多
关键词 Wheat STEAMED BREAD Quality TRAITS Variable COEFFICIENT Correlation COEFFICIENT
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Synthesis of a Wheat/Maize Hybrid CENH3 Gene, the Genetic Transformation of Wheat, Its Chromosomal Localization and Effects on Chromosome Behaviors in Wheat/Maize Somatic Hybrids 预览
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作者 Xiaoyu Yang Jianhui Li Weichang Yu 《农业科学(英文)》 2019年第7期985-1014,共30页
Centromere-specific histone H3 (CENH3) replaces the canonical histone H3 in nucleosomes of functional centromeres, and plays important roles in faithful chromosome segregation during cell division. CENH3 is also impor... Centromere-specific histone H3 (CENH3) replaces the canonical histone H3 in nucleosomes of functional centromeres, and plays important roles in faithful chromosome segregation during cell division. CENH3 is also important in the recognition of alien centromeres and determines the accommodation or elimination of alien chromosomes in interspecific or intergenic hybridization. In this study, a maize full length CENH3 with a yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) tag at C-terminus (ZmCENH3-YFP) and a synthetic hybrid wmCENH3 with the N-terminus from wheat CENH3 and the histone fold domain (HFD) from maize tagged with a red fluorescent protein (RFP) at the C-terminus (wmCENH3-RFP) were transformed to wheat by biolistics transformation. Transgenic wheat plants with both ZmCNEH3-YFP and wmCENH3-RFP genes were identified by PCR. The expression of ZmCENH3-YFP was not observed, while the expression of wmCENH3-RFP could be detected by RT-PCR, direct fluorescence microscopy, and immunostaining with anti-RFP antibody. The expressed wmCENH3-RFP was localized to nuclei as dotted patterns, indicating its targeting to wheat centromeres. Somatic hybridization was performed between wmCENH3-RFP transgenic wheat and transgenic maize that expressed a ZmCENH3-YFP gene to investigate chromosome behaviors in somatic hybrids. Cytological and FISH analyses of somatic hybrid cells showed the formation of micronuclei and lagging chromatin in both somatic hybridizations with or without the wmCENH3-RFP transgene, indicating that ectopically expressed wmCENH3 could not overcome chromosome elimination in wheat/maize somatic hybrids. Immunostaining of wmCENH3-RFP and ZmCENH3-YFP in early stage somatic hybrid cells indicated that both wmCENH3-RFP and ZmCENH3-YFP proteins were expressed, but their binding patterns changed from the commonly observed dotted patterns to diffused ones, suggesting that the inactivation of CENH3 might be a factor for chromosome elimination in wheat/maize somatic hybridization. 展开更多
关键词 Centromeric HISTONE H3 Genetic Transformation Chromosome Elimination SOMATIC HYBRIDIZATION WHEAT MAIZE
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